Library Open Repository

Leaf fossils of Banksia (Proteaceae) from New Zealand: an Australian abroad

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

Carpenter, RJ and Jordan, GJ and Lee, DE and Hill, RS (2010) Leaf fossils of Banksia (Proteaceae) from New Zealand: an Australian abroad. American Journal of Botany, 97 (2). pp. 288-297. ISSN 0002-9122

[img] PDF
New_Zealand_Banksia.pdf | Request a copy
Full text restricted
Available under University of Tasmania Standard License.

Abstract

Fossils can shed new light on plant biogeography and phylogeny. Pinnately lobed leaves from the Oligo-Miocene Newvale lignite mine, South Island, New Zealand are the fi rst extra-Australian leaf fossils of the charismatic genus Banksia (Proteaceae), and they are assigned to a new species, B. novae-zelandiae . Comparison with extant taxa shows that the fossils are best regarded as an extinct stem relative of Banksia because their available features are either plesiomorphic for the genus (notably, the stomata are superfi cially placed, not sunken in balloon-like pits as in many extant species) or lack evidence of synapomorphies that would enable them to be placed in the crown group. Banksia novae-zelandiae does, however, exhibit two cuticular features that are unique or highly derived for Banksia. These are rugulate subsidiary cell ornamentation and the presence of complex papillae that extensively cover the abaxial leaf surface. The fossils add to the widespread records of the pinnately lobed leaf form in Banksia in Australia beginning in the late Paleocene. This form is now limited to species confi ned to sclerophyllous heathlands of Mediterranean climate in southwestern Australia. Banksia novae-zelandiae could be part of a lineage that had a long history in New Zealand, perhaps dating to the early Paleogene.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Banksia ; crown group; cuticle; leaf fossils; long-distance dispersal; Proteaceae; stem group; vicariance
Journal or Publication Title: American Journal of Botany
Page Range: pp. 288-297
ISSN: 0002-9122
Identification Number - DOI: 10.3732/ajb.0900199
Additional Information: Copyright © 2010 Botanical Society of America
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2011 03:33
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 04:15
URI: http://eprints.utas.edu.au/id/eprint/10604
Item Statistics: View statistics for this item

Repository Staff Only (login required)

Item Control Page Item Control Page