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Differential effects of nutrient availability on the secondary metabolism of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) phloem and resistance to Diplodia pinea

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Wallis, C and Eyles, A and Chorbadjian, R and Reidl, K and Schwartz, S and Hansen, R and Cipollini, D and Herms, DA and Bonello, P (2011) Differential effects of nutrient availability on the secondary metabolism of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) phloem and resistance to Diplodia pinea. Forest Pathology, 41. pp. 52-58.

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Abstract

The biotic agents responsible for forest decline syndromes are known to be important drivers of forest community dynamics and can have significant impacts on forest productivity (Castello et al. 1995). The biotic and abiotic factors that trigger such declines are often unknown, but Manion (1996) proposed a model in which a combination of three classes of factors leads to decline and death of trees over time: (i) predisposing (i.e. long-term) factors such as suboptimal soil fertility (Lambert 1986; Turtola et al. 2002) and reduced light intensity (Klepzig et al. 1995, 1996); (ii) inciting (i.e. shorter-term) factors such as water stress (Blodgett et al. 1997) or insect defoliation (Raffa et al. 1998); and (iii) contributing factors, such as attacks by bark beetles (Eebilgin and Raffa 2002) and root pathogens such as Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion spp. (Cherubini et al. 2002). Some contributing factors are ultimately responsible for the tree death. How these factors affect, and in turn are affected by, tree defence mechanisms remains unclear. Secondary metabolism is known to contribute to tree resistance to pathogens (Franceschi et al. 2005; Bonello et al. 2006; Macias et al. 2007). Environmental factors can significantly affect secondary metabolism and thus host susceptibility to diseases. For example, nutrient availability, light quality and water availability can alter the synthesis and accumulation of phenolics and terpenes in conifers (e.g. Klepzig et al. 1995, 1996; Viiri et al. 2001; Blodgett et al. 2005). Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx causes Diplodia tip blight and canker of two-needled pines of all age classes, with repeated attacks resulting in decline and eventual death (Stanosz and Cummings Carlson 1996). The objective of this study was to investigate effects of nutrient availability on constitutive resistance of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) to D. pinea, as well as constitutive phloem concentrations of phenolic and terpenoid compounds thought to play a role in disease resistance. In companion studies, we found that nutrient availability could alter (i) the expression of systemic induced resistance in Austrian pine (Eyles et al. 2007a); (ii) the induction of defensive proteins (Barto et al. 2008); and (iii) the metabolomic profile of Austrian pine phloem induced by fungal infection and insect defoliation (Wallis et al. 2008).

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Forest Pathology
Page Range: pp. 52-58
Identification Number - DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2009.00636.x
Additional Information: The definitive published version is available online at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2012 02:33
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2012 02:33
URI: http://eprints.utas.edu.au/id/eprint/12701
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