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Diet, spatial ecology and energetics of echidnas: the significance of habitat and seasonal variation

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Sprent, JA (2012) Diet, spatial ecology and energetics of echidnas: the significance of habitat and seasonal variation. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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Abstract

The ant- and termite-eating echidna is a solitary, monotreme mammal with a highly seasonal life history. I investigated several aspects of the seasonal energetics and ecology of free-ranging echidnas: the role of leptin in the annual mass cycle, seasonal and habitat effects on diet, the relationship between home range size and habitat quality, and the effect of habitat on the siting of echidna latrines. The echidna has a large seasonal variation in fat stores, which reach their maximum prior to hibernation. I hypothesised that the hormone leptin would have the same role in the echidna as in eutherian hibernators, i.e. that there would be a direct relationship between body mass and plasma leptin that would change to allow pre-hibernatory fattening. I found significant seasonal variations in plasma leptin, with the highest levels occurring in hibernation and in females during mating. The lowest levels were found in males after the reproductive period. Rather than the expected strong positive relationship between adiposity and plasma leptin I found a weak negative relationship, similar to that in reptiles and birds. To determine if there was any significant seasonal variation in diet associated with prehibernatory fattening I investigated diet using scat and stable isotope analysis. Echidna scats consisted largely of ants and the larvae of pasture cockchafer beetles. There was significant seasonal variation in percent occurrence of larvae, but not in the ant species found in scats or in the stable isotopic composition of echidna plasma. Although there was no difference in the prey items that contributed most to scat contents of animals living in different habitats, stable isotope analysis of blood showed a highly significant effect of habitat type on δ15N. Female echidnas showed a significant negative relationship between the proportion of woodland habitat and home range size, whereas there was no such relationship for males, which had significantly larger home ranges. My data suggest that female home range is scaled to available resources, while male home range is probably scaled to maximise access to females. The role of latrines and their relationship to habitat was examined by a detailed survey of part of the field site, where many echidna home ranges were known to overlap. Latrines were located more frequently in scrub than in pasture or thick bush and the highest frequency of latrines occurred where there were two home ranges that overlapped. Latrines may be important in the spatial organisation of echidnas.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: echidna - diet - leptin - homerange - latrine - seasonal variation
Additional Information: Copyright the Author
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2012 04:42
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 04:41
URI: http://eprints.utas.edu.au/id/eprint/14799
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