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Design and performance of rigid nanosize multimetallic cartwheel pincer compounds as lewis-acid catalysts
Dijkstra, HP and Meijer, MD and Patel, J and Kreiter, R and van Klink, GPM and Lutz, M and Spek, AL and Canty, AJ and van Koten, G (2001) Design and performance of rigid nanosize multimetallic cartwheel pincer compounds as lewis-acid catalysts. Organometallics, 20 (14). pp. 3159-3168.
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Novel strategies for the preparation of rigid cartwheel pincer metal complexes have been developed. The aromatic backbone of these materials ensures a high rigidity, which is expected to be important for a high retention when these multimetallic nanosize complexes are applied as homogeneous catalysts in a nanomembrane reactor. The ligand precursors C6[C6H3(CH2Y)2-3,5]6 (10, Y = NMe2; 11, Y = SPh; 12, Y = PPh2; 13, Y = pz = pyrazol-1-yl) have been prepared in high yields from the key intermediate C6[C6H3(CH2Br)2-3,5]6 (9). The hexakis(pincer) palladium(II) complexes C6[(PdX)-4-C6H2(CH2Y)2-3,5]6 (14, Y = SPh, L = Cl; 15, Y = PPh2, L = Cl; 16, Y = pyrazol-1-yl, L = OAc; 17, Y = pyrazol-1-yl, L = Cl) have been prepared via direct electrophilic palladation of the corresponding ligands. The (tris)pincer ligand C6H3[Br-4-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-3,5]3-1,3,5 (20) was prepared via a triplecondensation reaction of 4-bromo-3,5-bis[(dimethylamino)methyl]acetophenone (19). Reaction of 20 with Pd(dba)2 yielded the tripalladium complex C6H3[(PdBr)-4-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-3,5]3- 1,3,5 (21). The crystal structure of 21 shows a propeller-like structure with D3 symmetry and a fixed bromine-bromine distance of 17.4573(4) Å, approximately forming a triangle with a height of 15.2 Å. These nanosize cartwheel pincer metal complexes based on tridentate Y,C,Y' pincer ligands have been used as homogeneous Lewis-acid catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the donor substituent Y on the catalytic activity of cationic mono-Y,C,Y' PdII complexes as Lewis-acid catalysts in the double Michael reaction between methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl alpha-cyanoacetate, as a model reaction, has been investigated. It was found that cationic N,C,N'-type pincer complexes (1a, Y = NMe2; 1b, Y = pz; 1c, Y = pz* = 3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl; 23) were superior to the P,C,P'- and S,C,S'-pincer complexes (1d, Y = PPh2; 1e, Y = SPh). The nanosize cationic tri-N,C,N' PdII complex 23 was found to have a catalytic activity per catalytic site in the double Michael reaction of the same order of magnitude as the monopincer analogue 1a (k = 279 x 10-6 s-1 for 1a vs k = 232 x 10-6 s-1 for 23). The combination of the nanosize dimensions, the catalytic activity, and the high thermal and air stability makes these complexes excellent candidates for application in a continuous process in a nanomembrane reactor.
|Journal or Publication Title:||Organometallics|
|Page Range:||pp. 3159-3168|
|Identification Number - DOI:||10.1021/om0101689|
|Additional Information:||Definitive version is available online at http://pubs.acs.org/journals/orgnd7/index.html|
|Date Deposited:||10 Oct 2007 23:38|
|Last Modified:||18 Nov 2014 03:23|
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