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Haldane rules: costs of outbreeding at production of daughters in sand lizards


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Olsson, M and Ujvari, B and Madsen, T and Uller, T and Wapstra, E (2004) Haldane rules: costs of outbreeding at production of daughters in sand lizards. Ecology Letters, 7. pp. 924-928. ISSN 1461-023X

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Haldane’s rule is one of the most widely applicable paradigms in evolutionary biology,
stating that in species crossings, the heterogametic sex will suffer more severely in terms
of sterility and inviability. We address this in a within-species outbreeding situation by
assessing the risk of producing inviable offspring depending on the sex ratio of the
clutch produced in between-population crossings in the laboratory. In crossings between
male and female sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) from two different sampling regions, one in
Sweden, one in central Europe, risk of gametic incompatibility is unaffected by
outbreeding, but offspring from between-population crossings show 300% higher
malformation frequency and 10% lower hatching success. The risk of having inviable
offspring increases with the production of daughters, i.e. the hemizygous sex in this
species (ZW). Such sex-specific genetic costs of offspring production need to be
incorporated into life history ecology, e.g. sex allocation theory.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Haldane, heterogamety, lizards, outbreeding, sex ratios.
Journal or Publication Title: Ecology Letters
Page Range: pp. 924-928
ISSN: 1461-023X
Identification Number - DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00652.x
Additional Information:

The definitive version is available at

Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2007 03:15
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 03:23
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