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Students' appreciation of expectation and variations as a foundation for statistical understanding


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Watson, JM and Callingham, RA and Kelly, BA (2007) Students' appreciation of expectation and variations as a foundation for statistical understanding. Mathematical thinking and learning, 9 (2). pp. 83-130. ISSN 1098-6065

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This study presents the results of a partial credit Rasch analysis of in-depth interview
data exploring statistical understanding of 73 school students in 6 contextual settings.
The use of Rasch analysis allowed the exploration of a single underlying variable
across contexts, which included probability sampling, representation of temperature
change, beginning inference, independent events, the relationship of sample and population,
and description of variation. Interpretation of the demands of increasing code
levels for the resulting variable revealed an increasing appreciation of and interaction
between the ideas of variation and expectation. Student progression in understanding
is illustrated with kidmaps, and educational implications are considered.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Mathematical thinking and learning
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Page Range: pp. 83-130
ISSN: 1098-6065
Identification Number - DOI: 10.1080/10986060709336812
Additional Information:

The definitive version is available online at

Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2008 14:41
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 03:36
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