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The importance of oxidized brines for the formation of australian Proterozoic stratiform sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (sedex) deposits
Cooke, DR and Bull, SW and Large, RR and McGoldrick, PJ (2000) The importance of oxidized brines for the formation of australian Proterozoic stratiform sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (sedex) deposits. Economic Geology, 95 (1). pp. 1-18. ISSN 0361-0128
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A two-fold subdivision for stratiform sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (sedimentary exhalative, sedex) deposits is proposed,
based on fundamental differences in the chemistry of the mineralizing brines. The type of sedimentary
basin from which the ore fluids are derived, and the litholOgies contained within the basin, control these differences
in fluid chemistry.
The two discrete brine types capable of transporting Zn and Pb are oxidized brines and reduced, acidic
brines. McArthur-type depOSits (e.g., McArtJ1Ur River, Mount 1sa, Hilton) precipitate from oxidized (SOJpredOminant),
acidic to near-neutral brines that evolve from sedimentary basins dominated by carbonates,
evaporites, and hematitic sandstones and shales. Selwyn-type depOSits (e.g., Sullivan, Rammelsberg, sedex deposits
of the Selwyn basin) precipitate from acidic, reduced (H2S-predominant) connate brines that evolved in
reduced siliciclastic and shale basins.
Temperature decrease and dilution (fluid mixing), addition of H2S, and pH increase can all be effective depOSitional
processes for Zn and Pb from reduced (Selwyn-type) brines. In conb'ast, sulfate reduction ancVor addition
of H2S (via fluid mixing or interaction with earlier formed pyrite) may be the important processes for
sphalerite and galena depOSition from oxidized (McArthur-type) brines. McAlthur-type sedex depOSits are intimately
associated with siderite or ferroan carbonate alteration halos and most l.ikEJy precipitate from lower
temperature brines than Selwyn-type deposits.
The redox state of the mineralized blines (sulfate or sulfide predominant) is impOltant for controlling minor
element associations in the two classes of sedex deposits. Weakly acidic to weakly alkaline oxidized brines CaIl
precipitate sidelite but are incapable of carrying Significant gold, tin, and barium in solution, and as such,
McArtllw-type deposits do not contain anomalous concentrations of these elements. Reduced, acid brines can
cany high concentrations of baJium, explaining the common association with barite in these deposits. If reduced
sulfur concentrations were sufficient in the mineralizing brines, individual Selwyn-type deposits may
contain anomalous or ore-wade gold. If the brines were higWy reduced (pylThotite-stable), they may have carried
high concentrations oftin (e.g., Sullivan). The lack of sulfide-bearing feeder systems in McArthur-type deposits
and their common occurrence in Selwyn-type depOSits probably also relate to the redox state of the brines.
From a mineral exploration perspective, oxidized sedimentary blines are more likely to produce large tonnage
Zn-Pb-Ag depOSits that have siderite or ankerite alteration halos and commonly lack barite lenses and vent
complexes. By contrast, deposits that form in reduced siliciclastic and shale-dominated basins are more likely
to be lower tonnage and to contain barite, vent complexes and may have minor gold or tin credits.
|Journal or Publication Title:||Economic Geology|
|Page Range:||pp. 1-18|
© 2000 Society of Economic Geologists.
|Date Deposited:||10 Jul 2008 11:18|
|Last Modified:||18 Nov 2014 03:39|
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