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Chickpeas and Human Health: The effect of chickpea consumption on some physiological and metabolic parameters

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Pittaway, JK (2006) Chickpeas and Human Health: The effect of chickpea consumption on some physiological and metabolic parameters. Research Master thesis, University of Tasmania.

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Abstract

Pulses (legumes) are a common dietary constituent of ethnic communities
exhibiting lower rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The following
studies examined the effect of including chickpeas in an 'Australian' diet
on CVD risk factors. Participants were free-living volunteers aged 30 to 70
years.
Study 1 investigated the effect of chickpeas on serum lipids, lipoproteins,
glycaemic control, bowel function and satiation (degree of fullness leading
to meal cessation) compared to a higher-fibre wheat-supplemented diet
(Chapter 2). Participants completed two controlled dietary interventions
(chickpea-supplemented and higher-fibre wheat-supplemented), isocaloric
with their usual dietary intake, in random order. The design of the
intervention diets was for matched macronutrient content and dietary fibre
however increased consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
during the chickpea-supplemented diet was noted. Small but significant
reductions in mean serum total cholesterol and low density lipoproteincholesterol
(LDL-C) were reported following the chickpea diet compared to
the wheat. Statistical analysis suggested a relationship between increased
consumption of PUFA and reduction in cholesterol during the chickpea
intervention but could not discern the source of PUFA. Chickpea
supplementation did not adversely affect bowel function and participants
found them very satiating. There was no effect on glycaemic control. A
small, sub-study compared the effects of an isocaloric, lower-fibre wheat diet to the higher-fibre wheat, to evaluate the effect of quantity of fibre as
well as source on bowel health and satiety. During the lower-fibre wheat
intervention, some participants reported lower satiation, and poorer bowel
health.
Some of the results from this study were included in a larger, collaborative
study investigating the effect of chickpeas on serum lipids and lipoproteins
in two centres, Launceston and Melbourne. The Melbourne group followed
a similar controlled, random crossover comparison of a chickpeasupplemented
diet to a higher-fibre wheat-supplemented diet, also
endeavouring to match macronutrient content and dietary fibre. The
Melbourne group also reported small but significant reductions in mean
serum LDL- and total cholesterol but reported discrepancies in
consumption of PUFA as well as dietary fibre between the intervention
diets. Statistical analysis of the combined results suggested a relationship
between increased consumption of PUFA and dietary fibre and a reduction
in cholesterol during the chickpea intervention. Appendix 1 is a description
of this collaborative study, formatted as a scientific paper, accepted for
publication.
Study 2 investigated whether results from the controlled study would
translate to ad libitum situations (Chapter 3). The study followed an
ordered crossover design where participants followed their habitual ad
libitum dietary intake for four weeks (familiarisation phase), incorporated a
minimum of four 300g (net weight) cans of chickpeas per week for 12 weeks and then resumed their habitual diet for another four weeks (usual
phase). Small but significant reductions in body weight, body mass index
(BMI), serum TC, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR occurred following the
chickpea phase, compared to the post-chickpea usual phase. Results
suggested that participants positively altered their eating pattern during the
pre-chickpea familiarisation phase, sustained these changes during the
12-week chickpea phase but regressed during the usual phase.
Participants consumed significantly more dietary fibre and PUFA during
the chickpea phase and less total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA)
compared to the usual phase. Perceived bowel health remained constant
throughout the study, while satiation increased significantly during the
chickpea phase along with a small but significant reduction in mean body
weight.
Incorporating chickpeas into an 'Australian' style diet resulted in increased
consumption of PUFA and dietary fibre that produced small but significant
reductions in serum TC, BMI and glycaemic control, high satiation and little
effect on bowel function. Individuals wishing to reduce CVD risk may
choose to include chickpeas in their diet.

Item Type: Thesis (Research Master)
Publisher: University of Tasmania Library, Special & Rare Material Collections
Date Deposited: 23 May 2007
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2016 05:54
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