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Type of volcanoes hosting the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt


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Rosa, CJP, McPhie, J and Relvas, JMRS 2010 , 'Type of volcanoes hosting the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt' , Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 194, no. 4 , pp. 107-126 , doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.05.005.

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The Volcanic Sedimentary Complex (VSC) of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in southern Portugal and Spain, comprises an Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous submarine succession with a variety of felsic volcanic lithofacies. The architecture of the felsic volcanic centres includes felsic lavas/domes, pyroclastic units, intrusions and minor mafic units that define lava–cryptodome–pumice cone volcanoes. The diversity of volcanic lithofacies recognized in different areas of the IPB mainly reflects variations in proximity to source, but also differences in the eruption style. The IPB volcanoes are intrabasinal, range in length from 2 km to > 8 km and their thickest sections vary from 400 m to > 800 m. These volcanoes are dominated by felsic lavas/domes that occur at several stratigraphic positions within the volcanic centre, however the pyroclastic units are also abundant and are spatially related to the lavas/domes. The intrusions are minor, and define cryptodomes and partly-extrusive cryptodomes. The hydrothermal systems that formed the Neves Corvo and Lousal massive sulfide ore deposits are associated with effusive units of felsic volcanic centres. At Neves Corvo, the massive sulfide orebodies are associated to rhyolitic lavas that overlie relatively thick fiamme-rich pyroclastic unit. In several other locations within the belt, pyroclastic units contain sulfide clasts that may have been derived from yet to be discovered coeval massive sulfide deposits at or below the sea floor, which enhances the exploration potential of these pyroclastic units and demonstrates the need for volcanic facies analysis in exploration.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Rosa, CJP and McPhie, J and Relvas, JMRS
Keywords: Iberian Pyrite Belt; Volcanic facies architecture; Massive sulfide deposits; Submarine lava–cryptodome–pumice cone volcanoes
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.05.005
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