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A review of the molecular evidence for ballast water introduction of the toxic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and the Alexandrium tamarensis complex to Australasia

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Bolch, CJS and de Salas, MF 2007 , 'A review of the molecular evidence for ballast water introduction of the toxic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and the Alexandrium tamarensis complex to Australasia' , Harmful Algae, vol. 6, no. 4 , pp. 465-485 , doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2006.12.008.

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Abstract

The potential of ballast water to act as a major introduction vector for toxic dinoflagellates and other phytoplankton is beyond doubt; however, evidence that links the suspected introduced species with a source population is less convincing, especially without supporting historical and biochemical data, or consideration of palaeobiogeographical scenarios that may explain current species distributions. This paper presents new molecular data based on LSU-rDNA and rDNA-ITS sequences that demonstrate an unequivocal and recent link between Temperate Asian and Australasian populations of the toxic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and toxic strains of the Alexandrium "tamarensis complex"?. We integrate our data with supporting evidence from historical distribution records, sediment dating studies, toxin profiles, mating studies and previous molecular studies. We contrast the observed patterns of genetic and biochemical variation with those expected from various palaeobiogeographical scenarios explaining the evolution and natural dispersal of both species. While definitive proof is impossible, the total evidence indicates that these toxic dinoflagellates were introduced to Australasia during the past 100 years, most probably via ballast water from bulk-cargo shipping from Japan and/or south-east Asia

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Bolch, CJS and de Salas, MF
Keywords: Harmful algae; Dinoflagellate; Alexandrium; Gymnodinium catenatum; Ballast water; RAPD-PCR; rDNA; ITS; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Global dispersal; Evolution; Palaeogeography
Journal or Publication Title: Harmful Algae
ISSN: 1568-9883
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.hal.2006.12.008
Additional Information:

The definitive version is available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15689883

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