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Differential effects of nutrient availability on the secondary metabolism of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) phloem and resistance to Diplodia pinea


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Wallis, C, Eyles, A, Chorbadjian, R, Reidl, K, Schwartz, S, Hansen, R, Cipollini, D, Herms, DA and Bonello, P 2011 , 'Differential effects of nutrient availability on the secondary metabolism of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) phloem and resistance to Diplodia pinea' , Forest Pathology, vol. 41 , pp. 52-58 , doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2009.00636.x.

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The biotic agents responsible for forest decline syndromes are known to be important drivers of forest community dynamics
and can have significant impacts on forest productivity (Castello et al. 1995). The biotic and abiotic factors that trigger such
declines are often unknown, but Manion (1996) proposed a model in which a combination of three classes of factors leads to
decline and death of trees over time: (i) predisposing (i.e. long-term) factors such as suboptimal soil fertility (Lambert 1986;
Turtola et al. 2002) and reduced light intensity (Klepzig et al. 1995, 1996); (ii) inciting (i.e. shorter-term) factors such as water
stress (Blodgett et al. 1997) or insect defoliation (Raffa et al. 1998); and (iii) contributing factors, such as attacks by bark
beetles (Eebilgin and Raffa 2002) and root pathogens such as Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion spp. (Cherubini et al. 2002).
Some contributing factors are ultimately responsible for the tree death.
How these factors affect, and in turn are affected by, tree defence mechanisms remains unclear. Secondary metabolism is
known to contribute to tree resistance to pathogens (Franceschi et al. 2005; Bonello et al. 2006; Macias et al. 2007).
Environmental factors can significantly affect secondary metabolism and thus host susceptibility to diseases. For example,
nutrient availability, light quality and water availability can alter the synthesis and accumulation of phenolics and terpenes in
conifers (e.g. Klepzig et al. 1995, 1996; Viiri et al. 2001; Blodgett et al. 2005).
Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx causes Diplodia tip blight and canker of two-needled pines of all age classes, with repeated
attacks resulting in decline and eventual death (Stanosz and Cummings Carlson 1996). The objective of this study was to
investigate effects of nutrient availability on constitutive resistance of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) to D. pinea, as well as
constitutive phloem concentrations of phenolic and terpenoid compounds thought to play a role in disease resistance. In
companion studies, we found that nutrient availability could alter (i) the expression of systemic induced resistance in Austrian
pine (Eyles et al. 2007a); (ii) the induction of defensive proteins (Barto et al. 2008); and (iii) the metabolomic profile of
Austrian pine phloem induced by fungal infection and insect defoliation (Wallis et al. 2008).

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Wallis, C and Eyles, A and Chorbadjian, R and Reidl, K and Schwartz, S and Hansen, R and Cipollini, D and Herms, DA and Bonello, P
Journal or Publication Title: Forest Pathology
DOI / ID Number: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2009.00636.x
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