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An experimental study of carbonated eclogite at 3.5-5.5 GPa – Implications for silicate and carbonate metasomatism in the cratonic mantle


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Kiseeva, ES, Yaxley, GM, Hermann, J, Litasov, KD, Rosenthal, A and Kamenetsky, VS 2012 , 'An experimental study of carbonated eclogite at 3.5-5.5 GPa – Implications for silicate and carbonate metasomatism in the cratonic mantle' , Journal of Petrology, vol. 53, no. 4 , pp. 727-759 , doi: 10.1093/petrology/egr078.

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We have experimentally investigated a K-bearing altered mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) composition to which 10% CaCO3 was added (GA1+10%cc), at temperatures of 1050-1400oC and pressures of 3•5-5•5 GPa. Experiments were conducted in piston-cylinder apparatus in Pt-Gr (Pt with inner graphite) and Au-Pd capsules. Sub-solidus assemblages for both sets of experiments contain clinopyroxene, garnet, carbonate, rutile, coesite and K-feldspar. Apatite was observed only in the Pt-Gr experiments. Melting behaviour in experiments using different capsule materials contrasted markedly. Experiments in Pt-Gr capsules showed the silicate solidus to be at temperatures less than 1100oC at 3•5GPa and less than 1050oC at 4•5-5•0 GPa.These are similar (3•5GPa) or lower (4•5-5•0 GPa) temperatures compared with the carbonate solidus (1075-1125oC at 3•5-5•0 GPa). Melts in the Pt-Gr runs evolve with increasing degree of melting from K-rich silicate melts at the lowest degree of melting to carbonate-silicate immiscible liquids and silicate-carbonate melts at intermediate degrees of melting, and finally to silicate melts at the highest degrees of melting. Experiments in Au-Pd capsules were performed only at 5•0GPa. The carbonate solidus is between 1200 and 1225oC (at least 100oC higher than in the experiments in Pt-Gr capsules at the same pressure-temperature conditions).The first melts to be produced are carbonatitic and exhibit increasing SiO2 content with increasing temperature.This contrast in melting behaviour is explained by the relatively rapid diffusion of H through the Pt-Gr capsules, resulting in formation of H2O, and thus dramatically depressing both the silicate and the carbonate solidi in the Pt-Gr experiments compared with those in the Au-Pd experiments. This presumably reflects the lower permeability of Au-Pd to H, resulting in a much lower H2O/CO2 ratio in the Au-Pd encapsulated experiments. The presence of water in the melt was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of one Pt-Gr experiment, indicating ~0•5wt % H2O in the bulk composition. Further confirmation that H2O plays such a role in the Pt-Gr experiments was provided by an additional experiment performed in a Au-Pd capsule with ~10 wt % H2Ospecifically added. In this experiment immiscible carbonate and silicate melts were observed. Carbonate- silicate liquid immiscibility is considered to occur as a result of the H2O present in the system. These results can be applied to natural systems in several ways. First, the presence of a small amount of either silicate melt or H2O-fluid in the system will act as a ‘flux’, depressing the carbonate solidus to much lower temperatures than inanhydrous systems. Second, the full trend in melt evolution from silicate-rich to carbonate-rich melts, which is also observed in inclusions in diamonds, can be explained by melting of K- and CO2-bearing, water-undersaturated MORB compositions. In cratonic environments low-degree silicate and immiscible silicate and carbonate melts will metasomatize the overlying mantle in different ways, producing, in the first instance, Si enrichment and crystallization of additional orthopyroxene, phlogopite, pyrope-rich garnet and consuming olivine, and, in the second case, carbonate metasomatism, with additional magnesite-dolomite, clinopyroxene and apatite. Both metasomatic styles have been described in natural peridotite xenoliths from the cratonic lithosphere.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Kiseeva, ES and Yaxley, GM and Hermann, J and Litasov, KD and Rosenthal, A and Kamenetsky, VS
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Petrology
DOI / ID Number: 10.1093/petrology/egr078
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