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S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates


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Harlow, LD, Koutoulis, A and Hallegraeff, GM 2007 , 'S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates' , Phycologia, vol. 46 , pp. 46-53 , doi: 10.2216/06-28.1.

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Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) such as saxitoxin are believed to be synthesised from precursor molecules including
arginine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and acetate. The enzyme SAM synthetase is a good candidate as an early
acting enzyme in the PST biosynthetic pathway. We have used degenerate PCR to identify the gene encoding SAM synthetase,
Sam, in dinoflagellates. Several different PCR products were cloned and sequenced from PST-producing strains of
the dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum, A. catenella and Gymnodinium catenatum and primers specific to dinoflagellate
Sam used for further sequence analysis in 11 species of toxic and nontoxic dinoflagellate genera, including: Alexandrium,
Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, Noctiluca, Prorocentrum and Takayama. At the nucleotide level, Sam clones were
unique to dinoflagellates and the most commonly identified Sam was highly conserved between dinoflagellate species.
Dinoflagellate Sam G C content was both typical (60.8%) or lower (40.7%) compared to A. tamarense. The derived
protein sequences showed a low and equal level of similarity to Sam from other species representing a range of Kingdoms.
DNA sequence information for dinoflagellate Sam provides important insights for dinoflagellate codon usage, which will
facilitate primer design to target novel dinoflagellate genes.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Harlow, LD and Koutoulis, A and Hallegraeff, GM
Keywords: Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinoflagellate, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, Neurotoxin, PCR
Journal or Publication Title: Phycologia
DOI / ID Number: 10.2216/06-28.1
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