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Taxonomic studies of Strophariaceae (Agaricales) in south-east Tasmania

Yu, Shyun Chang 1992 , 'Taxonomic studies of Strophariaceae (Agaricales) in south-east Tasmania', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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This project is a study of the family Strophariaceae utilizing comparative morphology,
electrophoresis of extracellular enzymes and mating compatibility approaches. The
study has found macromorphology to be effective in the delineation of taxa in the
majority of cases.
Isozyme profiles of extracellular laccase, pectinesterase and polygalacturonase are found
to be species distinctive in most species across the genera of this family. The one
exception found is Hypholoma whose species show a certain degree of
conservativeness in the enzymes examined in the study. This approach is found to be
useful in establishing putative species groups which can then be further investigated
through mating studies.
The multifaceted approach employed in the study has successfully resolved the
relationships between Psi locybe subaeruginosa and P. australiana, P. eucalypta and
P. tasmaniana, identified sibling species in both Stropharia and Pholiota, and
established Pholiota. squarrosipes Clel. and P. multicingulata Horak as species
showing a wide range of morphological variations. It is suggested from this study that
P. multicingulata sensu lato may encompass P. multicingulata Horak and P.
austrospumosa Hongo forming the southern hemisphere equivalent of Pholiota
spumosa complex. In addition, a multifaceted approach such as that adopted in the
study also lends support to the applicability of the common species concept proposed for
Hymenomycetes in the family Strophariaceae.
Results gained have enabled a confident approach to the separation and enumeration of
species within the family. Results from electrophoresis show that delineation of taxa can
be achieved through distinctions in zymogram patterns. For example, the recently described species Psilocybe australiana Guzman & Wading, P. eucalypta Guzman &
Watling and P. tasrnaniana Guzman & Wading are shown to be synonymous with P.
subaeruginosa Clel. In this particular case, the considerable degree of similarity in
zymogram patterns is highly indicative of a single species and this conclusion is
supported by mating studies. Diagnostic morphological characters used in previous
studies to differentiate these taxa are shown to be invalid.
The phenomenon of sibling species is not uncommon in fungi. Electrophoretic analyses
showed that within the genera of Stropharia and Pholiota sibling species were
concealed within common morphological entities. This is exemplified in the
semiglobata-like forms in Stropharia. Within this single morphological entity, two
distinct species were identified by comparison of isozyrne profiles and UPGMA cluster
analysis using band frequencies, later the segregation was confirmed by mating
compatibility studies.
The study has confirmed the use of enzyme electrophoresis as a useful technique when
applied to a wide range of species across a family from the Agaricales. When this
technique is used in conjunction with mating compatibility study, findings from
electrophoresis have been complimented and confirmed by those from mating. Thus,
the study has avoided some of the problems associated with a purely morphological
approach, and as illustrated by the case of Psilocybe subaeruginosa the multifaceted
approach employed here allows much more confidence to be placed on the described
boundaries of the species studied.
31 taxa are delineated from the study, and of these, eight are previously undescribed
species and one being a new variety.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Yu, Shyun Chang
Keywords: Strophariaceae, Agaricales, Strophariaceae
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Additional Information:

Includes bibliographical references (leaves 167-180). Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Tasmania, 1993

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