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The effects of job demands and resources on emotional labour and employees' psychological well-being


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Chou, Huei-Yin 2009 , 'The effects of job demands and resources on emotional labour and employees' psychological well-being', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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The research was designed to advance theoretical understanding of the construct
of emotional labour by investigating its antecedents and outcomes. Emotional labour
refers to the process of regulating one's inner feelings or outward expressions to display
the appropriate emotions required by organizations. Employees perform emotional labour
through two strategies: surface acting and deep acting.
The primary objective of the thesis was to develop and empirically test an
emotional labour model which was theorized using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R)
model. Specifically, the study hypothesized a model that emotional job demands
(frequency of interactions, duration of interactions, and frequency of interactions with
difficult customers) and resources (affectivity, perceived organizational support, and job
autonomy) were antecedents of emotional labour (surface and deep acting), and
emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction were outcomes of emotional labour. In addition
to the direct relationships emotional labour has with antecedents and consequences, it
was proposed that emotional job demands and resources would affect employees' wellbeing
(emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction) regardless of whether emotional labour
is employed. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire administered at two
points in time (6 months apart). A total of 199 employees from different organizations in
the service industry in Taiwan completed both questionnaires. Structural equation
modelling and confirmation factor analysis techniques were employed to examine the
proposed measurement model and to test the hypotheses. Results provided evidence of a
well-fitting measurement model and support for a number of the hypotheses. The results
showed that frequency of interactions with difficult customers and negative affectivity
were predictors of surface acting, and positive affectivity was a predictor of deep acting.
It was also found that emotional labour strategies (surface acting and deep acting) play an
important role in determining employees' well-being. Surface acting was found to be
positively related to emotional exhaustion and negatively related to job satisfaction,
whereas deep acting was positively related to job satisfaction. In addition, individuals
who were high on negative affectivity were likely to experience emotional exhaustion,
while individuals who felt supported by their organizations were less likely to experience
emotional exhaustion and more likely to be satisfied with their jobs. Finally, the results
also suggested that surface acting mediated relationships between negative affectivity,
and frequency of interactions with difficult customers, and emotional exhaustion and
between negative affectivity and job satisfaction.
Overall, the findings of the research have implications for human resource
management, particularly within the service sector, in areas including selection, training,
and organizational support. Detailed theoretical and practical implications, limitations,
and directions for future research are discussed.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Chou, Huei-Yin
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Work, Quality of work life
Copyright Holders: The Author
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2009 the Author

Additional Information:

Available for use in the Library and copying in accordance with the Copyright Act 1968, as amended. Thesis (PhD)--University of Tasmania, 2009. Includes bibliographical references

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