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Non-state actors in the Antarctic treaty system : making heresy orthodox


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Darby, Andrew 1994 , 'Non-state actors in the Antarctic treaty system : making heresy orthodox', Research Master thesis, University of Tasmania.

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In the period 1988-9, Antarctica's previously little troubled governing
regime, the Antarctic Treaty System, descended into the most significant
discord in its history with the rejection of the agreed Convention to Regulate
Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities and its eventual replacement by the
Protocol on Environment Protection containing a limited mining ban. This study
argues that non-state actors were the driving force behind the defeat of
CRAMRA. These actors, in the form of environment promotion nongovernment
organisations, successfully substituted many of the objectives they
sought, which were at odds with the regime and encapsulated in the notion of a
"world park". The study focusses on the role of non-state actors in the world today. It
examines who they are in the Antarctic context and what attributes may prove
important in their exercise of influence over the Antarctic Treaty System. It then
uses the case study described above to test which attributes proved important in
the exercise of influence in this period. Finally it considers what cautionary
lesson lies therein for the operation of international regimes.
It is the thesis of this work that under some circumstances, non-state actors
can be a decisive influence in forcing a change upon states acting together in an
international regime. This conflicts with the political Realist's view that only
states actually possess the power to accomplish political change, and non-state
actors can do little more than encourage new directions. Instead it aligns with
the political Rationalist's belief that allows non-state actors to be a customary
part of the action in decisions made by international regimes. This study
argues that it was the "heretics" outside the ATS who gained legitimacy with the
wider public, and through individual government apparatuses. In contrast the
ATS, which brought CRAMRA to fruition in a closed and little known
negotiating process, failed to have this convention approved because it lacked legitimacy. The ATS found that the world was prepared to adopt the non-state
The work begins with a theoretical review of authorities' views on non-state
actors, their links with international regimes, and the state system of
government. It continues with what is believed to be the first attempt to
catalogue non-state actors involved with the ATS, a process that is carried out
along a common typology. The case study is then examined in two distinct
phases divided by the watershed of the agreement of CRAMRA. In the first
phase we see the rise of environmentalism and non-state interest in Antarctica
paralleling the rise of CRAMRA. In the second phase, the death of CRAMRA
and birth of the Protocol on Environment Protection are examined through the
prism of non-state activity in a sequence of five key countries. Finally, the
study draws conclusions about the methods of change employed by non-state
actors, attributes that made some of them more influential than others, and the
overall influence of non-state actors on states in the ATS.

Item Type: Thesis - Research Master
Authors/Creators:Darby, Andrew
Keywords: Antarctic Treaty system, Geopolitics, Natural resources, Non-governmental organizations
Copyright Holders: The Author
Copyright Information:

Copyright 1994 the Author - The University is continuing to endeavour to trace the copyright
owner(s) and in the meantime this item has been reproduced here in good faith. We
would be pleased to hear from the copyright owner(s).

Additional Information:

Thesis (M.A.)--University of Tasmania, 1953, 1995. Includes bibliographical references (p. 178-192)

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