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Facies architecture of the Lewis Ponds carbonate and volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits, central western New South Wales


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Agnew, MW, Bull, SW and Large, RR 2004 , 'Facies architecture of the Lewis Ponds carbonate and volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits, central western New South Wales' , Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 51, no. 3 , pp. 349-368 , doi: 10.1111/j.1400-0952.2004.01062.x.

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The Lewis Ponds carbonate and volcanic-hosted Zn–Pb–Cu–Ag–Au-rich massive sulfide deposits are
located near the western margin of the Hill End Trough in the eastern Lachlan Fold Belt of New South
Wales. Two stratabound massive sulfide zones, Main and Toms’ occur in a tightly folded Upper Silurian
succession of marine felsic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Siltstone, mudstone and quartz crystalrich
sandstone overlie thick, tabular beds of poorly sorted mixed-provenance breccia, limestone-clast
breccia and pebbly granular sandstone. The sedimentary rocks unconformably overlie a succession
of strongly foliated, quartz–plagioclase–phyric dacite. Hydrothermal alteration and deformation have
obscured primary textures and contact relationships in the footwall volcanic succession. However,
three lithofacies associations were distinguished using phenocryst abundance, overall texture and
immobile element compositions. Thick (up to 100 m) conformable or fault-bound units of poorly sorted
limestone-clast breccia, megabreccia and massive limestone occur throughout the Lewis Ponds host
sequence. Clasts vary in size from small pebbles to 10 m-long boulders and 90 m-thick lenses. Where
primary textures are preserved, the bioclastic limestone contains crinoid fragments, brachiopods,
bivalves, solitary corals, volcanic quartz and feldspar crystals and rare Silurian conodonts. Although
originally deposited in shallower water, the allochthonous limestone occurs in a host sequence of
predominantly siltstone and mudstone. The mixed-provenance breccia, limestone-clast breccia,
pebbly granular sandstone and quartz crystal-rich sandstone were deposited on the flanks of a highlevel
intrusive dacite centre in a moderately deep, below wave-base slope environment. Volcanic
and sedimentary components originated from multiple source areas at the basin margin and in the
adjacent hinterland. The Lewis Ponds host sequence records a transition from coarse-grained polymictic
volcaniclastic breccia and sandstone, upwards into mudstone, siltstone and minor volcanogenic
sandstone, indicating deposition in a deepening, more restricted environment as volcanism
waned and the basin progressively subsided.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Agnew, MW and Bull, SW and Large, RR
Keywords: dacite, Hill End Trough, Lewis Ponds, limestone, lithofacies associations, Mumbil Group, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide
Journal or Publication Title: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN: 0812-0099
DOI / ID Number: 10.1111/j.1400-0952.2004.01062.x
Additional Information:

Copyright 2004 Taylor & Francis. Reproduced in accordance with the publishers policy. The definitive published version is available online at:

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