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The development of phonological and orthographic processing strategies in readers with a specific reading disability compared to normally achieving readers


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Kirby, ML 2001 , 'The development of phonological and orthographic processing strategies in readers with a specific reading disability compared to normally achieving readers', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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The self-teaching model of reading acquisition proposed by Share (1995, 1999)
suggests that phonological decoding may be the principal means for becoming skilled
at word recognition. Given that individuals with a specific reading disability (SRD)
have been shown to have a phonological processing deficit (Rack et al., 1992), the
lack of proficiency in these skills could have detrimental effects on orthographic
processing skills. In contrast, Lennox and Siegel (1994) argue that the cognitive
profile of children who have a specific reading disability (SRDs) might include
deficient phonological skills and superior orthographic skills. In a two-year
longitudinal study, SRDs in Grades 3, 5, and 7 and their chronological age (CAMs)
and reading age (RAMs) matched controls (N=98) performed a range of standardised
and experimental tasks to investigate the development of phonological and orthographic component processing skills. Although SRDs made significant gains on
isolated word recognition tasks over time, they did not improve to the same extent as
RAMs. This was largely attributed to a phonological processing deficit given that, in
comparison to controls, SRDs were significantly less accurate on nonword reading,
phoneme deletion, and phonological coding tasks and did not improve significantly
over time for the latter two tasks. SRDs demonstrated a particular difficulty with
phonological analysis of visual stimuli and were more likely than controls to use an
orthographic strategy to perform this task. Although SRDs did not demonstrate a
deficit for synthesis tasks, they did show an atypical developmental pattern compared
to RAMs. SRDs in Grade 3 had difficulty discriminating between real word targets
and pseudohomophone foils on an orthographic coding task compared to controls
whereas older SRDs performed similarly to RAMs. Although all SRDs improved on
this task, the youngest group appeared to develop less accurate orthographic representations. In discriminating between nonwords containing legal letter strings
and those containing letter strings in positions that never occur in the English
language, all groups performed similarly indicating that the participants had attained
a sufficient level of orthographic knowledge required to perform this task.
Orthographic strategy use and coding skills appeared to be relatively intact in
comparison to phonological processing skills for SRDs. However, there was
insufficient evidence to conclude that SRDs compensate for their phonological deficit
with superior orthographic skills given that there were no orthographic tasks where
SRDs performed better than would be expected given their reading age. Furthermore,
in addition to an atypical developmental pattern for phonological processing skills,
SRDs showed a protracted developmental course for some measures of orthographic
processing. These findings support Share's (1995, 1999) idea that the acquisition of
orthographic representations is largely dependent on phonological processing skills.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Kirby, ML
Keywords: Reading disability, Reading, Psychology of, Word recognition
Copyright Holders: The Author
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2001 the Author - The University is continuing to endeavour to trace the copyright
owner(s) and in the meantime this item has been reproduced here in good faith. We
would be pleased to hear from the copyright owner(s).

Additional Information:

Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Tasmania, 2002. Includes bibliographical references

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