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The culture of copepods as live food for marine fish larvae


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Marshall, AJ 2002 , 'The culture of copepods as live food for marine fish larvae', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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The diversification of marine finfish aquaculture has identified a requirement for
live foods other than the traditional rotifer and brine shrimp species. As copepods
constitute a natural component of the diets of larval fish, three species were
isolated and their life cycle, environmental tolerances, and productivities
investigated. Preliminary trials were also conducted feeding them to larval finfish.
The temperate harpacticoid Tisbe species and the tropical cyclopoid Apocyclops
dengizicus were chosen for these trials as a result of their persistence in aquaculture
environs and apparent tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions. Both
Tisbe sp. and A. dengizicus populations in culture were found to tolerate
temperatures and salinities over the ranges of 10 °C to 35 °C and 25 %o to 70 %o
respectively, and were well accepted by first feeding larvae of test fish species.
Tisbe sp. populations maintained at 20 °C and 35%0 and fed a mixed algal diet of
Tetraselmis sp. and Isochrysis galbana at a density of 1.6x105cells mL-1 exhibited
a mean generation time of 6.5 days. The maximum culture density recorded was
6,000 Tisbe U. A. dengizicus culture populations exhibited a mean generation
time of 5.3 days when cultured at 29-32 °C and 25 °/00, with a maximum culture
density of 4,500 individuals L-1 achieved when fed the same mixed algal diet as
Tisbe sp..
Trials conducted with Tisbe sp. and larval greenback flounder (Rhombosolea
tapirina) showed larvae ingested Tisbe sp. nauplii in preference to rotifers
(Brachionus plicatilis) at initiation of feeding. Developing flounder larvae targeted
progressively larger copepod stages consuming ovigerous Tisbe sp. at 12 days posthatch.
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) larvae were shown to be successful predators
of all Apocyclops dengizicus life stages with ovigerous A dengizicus ingested by
larvae at 6 days post-hatch. Only moribund barramundi larvae were preyed on by
the cyclopoid.
The tropical calanoid Acartia species was selected for these trials on the basis of
the reported success achieved in Thailand when larval red snapper (Lutjanus
argentimaculatus) were reared on zooplankton cultures containing Acartia spp..
Acartia sp. cultures, although tolerant of temperatures and salinities between 23 °C
and 35 °C and 5 % and 45 %0 respectively, exhibited an increase in numbers only
when maintained at 35%0. An estimated mean generation time of seven days was
observed at 30°C. The maximum culture density achieved was 1,200 individuals
L-1 when Acartia sp. were fed a mixed algal diet comprising Isochrysis galbana,
Rho domonas sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Heterocapsa neie in the ratio 4:2:1:0.1
providing a final algal density of 2.3x10 6 cells mL-1. Feeding trials conducted with Acartia sp. and golden snapper (Lutjanus johnii) in
volumes less than 100 L proved unsuccessful, however semi-extensive trials
conducted in 40 m3 tanks yielded larval survival rates of 40 % compared with less
than 0.1 % achieved when rotifers were used (Schipp, Bosmans & Marshall, 1999).

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Marshall, AJ
Keywords: Marine fishes, Copepoda as feed
Copyright Holders: The Author
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2002 the Author - The University is continuing to endeavour to trace the copyright owner(s) and in the meantime this item has been reproduced here in good faith. We would be pleased to hear from the copyright owner(s).

Additional Information:

Thesis (PhD )--University of Tasmania, 2002. Includes bibliographical references

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