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Emissions from residential wood-burning heaters : a study of the problem, its measurement and control, and the determination of some emission factors

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Quraishi, T A(Tauseef Ahmad) 1987 , 'Emissions from residential wood-burning heaters : a study of the problem, its measurement and control, and the determination of some emission factors', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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Abstract

In Australia there has been a sharp increase in residential
wood-heating since the late 1970s, and the trend is expected to
continue for some years. Overseas research has shown that, under
certain conditions, wood-heating can be a source of serious air
pollution problems. The particulates resulting from wood-burning
appliances are primarily organic in nature and, being in the
respirable size range, can cause a variety of health ailments
including cancer. The reaction of affected communities overseas has
been varied. New Zealand followed the British example by allowing
Christchurch to be declared a Clean Air Zone, but the results are not
comparable to those achieved in Britain. In the United States, the
Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a new source performance
standard for wood-burning appliances which will become effective in
July 1988. However, a number of control measures are already in force
in several states and towns. In Europe, voluntary performance
certification of appliances occurs in the Netherlands and Switzerland;
and fire insurance premiums are linked to regular inspections and
maintenance in France. In Australia, there is currently no
co-ordinated control strategy to deal with this potential problem.
Only the New South Wales Clean Air Act gives limited powers to local
councils. Recently some brochures on wood-heater smoke reduction have
been published and are available in some states.
A standard measurement technique is of vital importance in controlling
pollution. In wood-heater applications this has been lacking and the
task of its development is made difficult by the non-discrete nature
of the particulates in wood-smoke as well as the variations in the
wood-burning process. An assortment of methods have been used to
measure particulate emissions from wood-heaters. Oregon Method 7 was
the first "standard method" for this source, and is a modification of
EPA Method 5. The ASTM has proposed a dilution tunnel method which is
finding popular support; it has been accepted by the New Zealand Clean
Air Council as the \Standard Method, and also by the US EPA. Another
dilution method is the Condar Method which has been accepted by the
Oregon DEQ as equivalent to OM-7. This is a very simple and
relatively inexpensive method which can identify periods of high
emissions during a burn. This method was used in the experimental
part of this study.
Seventy three tests were conducted on two models of heaters (one
catalytic and the other non-catalytic) using three types of fuel wood
and varying fuel loads and burn rates. Statistical analysis revealed
no difference between the catalytic and the non-catalytic models and
no effect of varying burn rates on emissions; emissions increased with
larger fuel loads for one fuel wood type, whereas for the other two
types there was no significant increase. Correlations between
particulate emissions and average flue gas concentrations of 02,
co2, and CO were very poor.
Particulate emission factors obtained during the experimental
programme ranged from 0. 4 to 32. 7 g/kg (0. 9 to 56 .1 g/h) with an
average of 8. 2 g/kg (15 .1 g/h) for eucalypt firewood. Lower emissions
were obtained for eucalypt and pine brands; with eucalypt brands the
range was 0.4 to 4.4 g/kg (0.9 to 13.9 g/h) with an average of
1.8 g/kg (4.4 g/h), whereas for pine brands the range was 1.3 to
5.5 g/kg (2.6 to 13.5 g/h) with an average of 3.3 g/kg (7.2 g/h).
On the basis of this study it is recommended that detailed studies be
initiated to estimate the impact of this source on ambient air quality
in the areas where wood-burning is popular. This should then lead to
the formulation of an appropriate control strategy. Meanwhile,
greater importance should be given to public education programmes.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Quraishi, T A(Tauseef Ahmad)
Keywords: Stoves, Wood, Stoves, Wood, Flue gases, Flue gases
Copyright Holders: The Author
Copyright Information:

Copyright 1987 the author - The University is continuing to endeavour to trace the copyright
owner(s) and in the meantime this item has been reproduced here in good faith. We
would be pleased to hear from the copyright owner(s).

Additional Information:

Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Tasmania, 1988. Includes bibliographies

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