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Measuring mood following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)


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Holm, KCC 2015 , 'Measuring mood following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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There is little published research following the emotional recovery of patients with Traumatic
Brain Injury (TBI). The present research aimed to investigate in a series of four studies, the
relationship between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a number of
variables (demographic, clinical and psychological/physiological) over 2 years following
TBI. This large-scale Tasmanian-based population study consisted of 1044 TBI patients
(65% males, mean age = 36 yrs) identified from the Neuro Trauma Register database, who
completed the HADS and a number of scales and interview questions at the initial follow-up
(< 15 days post-injury), 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months post-injury.
The data was analysed in a series of longitudinal analyses (repeated measures ANOVAS),
cross-sectional analyses (between subjects t-tests and ANOVAS), and multiple regression
analyses. The findings indicated greater levels of pain and fatigue, lower levels of subjective
quality of life (SQOL), and increased severity of post-concussion symptoms were associated
with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and psychomotor symptoms across the 2-year postinjury
period—with large effect sizes noted. A number of regression models predicted
participants’ emotional recovery at the later assessments, explaining up to 64% of variance
on the HADS. Variables consistently featuring in the models included the HADS Anxiety,
Depression, and Psychomotor factors, and variables measuring levels of post-concussion
symptoms, SQOL, est. pre-morbid intelligence, and pain. The findings of the present research
highlight the importance for early screening of TBI patients’ emotional outcome to enable
early intervention and suggest the Skilbeck et al. (2011) HADS 3-factor model can be
effectively used to identify patients at risk of developing disturbances in anxiety, depression,
and psychomotor domains across two years post-TBI. Service implications and directions for
future research are discussed.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Holm, KCC
Keywords: HADS, Mood, Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI
Copyright Holders: The Author
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Copyright 2015 the author

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