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The originals: the role and influence of the original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty

Haward, M ORCID: 0000-0003-4775-0864 2017 , 'The originals: the role and influence of the original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty', in K Dodds and AD Hemmings and P Roberts (eds.), Handbook on the politics of Antarctica , Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., Cheltenham. UK, pp. 232-240.

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Twelve states (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway,Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – USSR (now Russia), South Africa, the UnitedKingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA)) signed the Antarctic Treaty atthe conclusion of the Antarctic Conference in Washington in December 1959. The originalsignatories have remained influential actors in the system, and proudly promote thisstatus. These states became Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) by virtue oftheir status as original signatories under Article IX. The other Consultative Parties – nownumbering seventeen – have to accede to the treaty and then gain consultative party statusby ‘conducting substantial research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientificstation or the despatch of a scientific expedition’. This leaves questions moot over themeaning of ‘during such times’ and ‘substantial research activity’ in Article IX (2) andhow acceding states assess the level of scientific work required of the original signatories. The original signatories have helped shape the development of what has become knownas the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). The majority of the original signatories haveundertaken much of the ‘heavy lifting’ within the ATS, for example, the development ofarrangements to address the protection of flora and fauna, the regulation of marine andmineral resources, environmental protection and the regulation of tourism. As a resultthe original signatory states have been active in developing administrative arrangementswithin the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs) and have had key roles inits Working Groups. Most significantly ‘the originals’ conduct a major proportion of thescientific effort and logistics on the continent.

Item Type: Book Section
Authors/Creators:Haward, M
Keywords: Antarctic Treaty, diplomacy, Antarctica
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
DOI / ID Number:
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Copyright 2017 Klaus Dodds, Alan D. Hemmings and Peder Roberts

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