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Lipids of the tail gland, body and muzzle fur of the Red Fox, Vulpes Vulpes

McLean, S ORCID: 0000-0003-1041-6563, Davies, NW ORCID: 0000-0002-9624-0935 and Nichols, DS ORCID: 0000-0002-8066-3132 2017 , 'Lipids of the tail gland, body and muzzle fur of the Red Fox, Vulpes Vulpes' , Lipids, vol. 52 , pp. 599-617 , doi: 10.1007/s11745-017-4270-1.

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Abstract

The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in socialcommunication. We have analysed lipids extracted fromfur of the tail gland, body (fanks) and muzzle of foxes.GC–MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglatemonoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0–22:0). There wasalso a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second,longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcoholgroup. LC–MS showed the full range of diol diesters,mostly C36:0–50:0, with smaller amounts of the correspondingmono-unsaturated tiglate esters. An additionalgroup of diesters with higher MW (C49:0–62:0) containingtwo long-chain FA was present in the lipids of bodyand muzzle fur. After saponifcation and GC–MS, 98 fattyacids were characterized as their methyl esters. Apart fromthe C5 FA, most were saturated n-, iso-, anteiso- or othermethyl-branched FA (C12:0–28:0) whose structures weredetermined by a combination of their mass spectra andKovats retention indices. Several FA have not previouslybeen found in nature or in vertebrates. Thirty-four alkane-1,2-diols were found as their TMS derivatives, mostly n-,iso- or anteiso-isomers of C16:0–25:0. The tail gland hadthe greatest amount of wax esters, from a greater variety ofFA and diols, but lacked the esters with two long-chain FA.These fndings show that fox skin lipids comprise monoanddi-esters of alkane-1,2-diols, and exhibit enormouscomplexity due to the diversity of their constituent FA,diols and the many possible isomers of their esters.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:McLean, S and Davies, NW and Nichols, DS
Keywords: Red fox, lipids, mass spectrometry, GC, HPLC, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, waxes
Journal or Publication Title: Lipids
Publisher: Springer
ISSN: 0024-4201
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s11745-017-4270-1
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2017 AOCS

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