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Likelihood ratio sequential sampling models of recognition memory

Osth, AF, Dennis, S and Heathcote, A ORCID: 0000-0003-4324-5537 2017 , 'Likelihood ratio sequential sampling models of recognition memory' , Cognitive Psychology, vol. 92 , pp. 101-126 , doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2016.11.007.

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The mirror effect – a phenomenon whereby a manipulation produces opposite effects onhit and false alarm rates – is benchmark regularity of recognition memory. A likelihoodratio decision process, basing recognition on the relative likelihood that a stimulus is a targetor a lure, naturally predicts the mirror effect, and so has been widely adopted in quantitativemodels of recognition memory. Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (2009)demonstrated that likelihood ratio models, assuming Gaussian memory strength, are alsocapable of explaining regularities observed in receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs),such as greater target than lure variance. Despite its central place in theorising aboutrecognition memory, however, this class of models has not been tested using response time(RT) distributions. In this article, we develop a linear approximation to the likelihood ratiotransformation, which we show predicts the same regularities as the exact transformation.This development enabled us to develop a tractable model of recognition-memory RTbased on the diffusion decision model (DDM), with inputs (drift rates) provided by anapproximate likelihood ratio transformation. We compared this ‘‘LR-DDM” to a standardDDM where all targets and lures receive their own drift rate parameters. Both were implementedas hierarchical Bayesian models and applied to four datasets. Model selection takinginto account parsimony favored the LR-DDM, which requires fewer parameters thanthe standard DDM but still fits the data well. These results support log-likelihood basedmodels as providing an elegant explanation of the regularities of recognition memory,not only in terms of choices made but also in terms of the times it takes to make them.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Osth, AF and Dennis, S and Heathcote, A
Journal or Publication Title: Cognitive Psychology
Publisher: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science
ISSN: 0010-0285
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2016.11.007
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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