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Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being

Peacock, A ORCID: 0000-0002-5705-2026, Bruno, R ORCID: 0000-0001-6673-833X, Ferris, J and Winstock, A 2017 , 'Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being' , Drug and alcohol dependence, vol. 174 , pp. 70-79 , doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.010.

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Objective: The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasalspray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency anddemographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing.Method: Participants (n = 74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey.They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol UseDisorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether theywished to reduce alcohol use.Results: Lifetime ED, caffeine tablet and intranasal caffeine spray use were reported by 69.2%, 24.5% and4.9%. Median age of ED initiation was 16 years. For those aged 16–37, median years using EDs increasedfrom 4 to 17 years of consumption, where it declined thereafter. Greater ED use frequency was associatedwith: being male; under 21 years of age; studying; and past year caffeine tablet/intranasal spray, tobacco,cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine use. Past year, infrequent (1–4 days) and frequent (≥5 days)past month ED consumers reported higher AUDIT scores and lower PWI scores than lifetime abstainers;past month consumers were less likely to report a desire to reduce alcohol use.Conclusions: ED use is part of a complex interplay of drug use, alcohol problems, and poorer personal wellbeing,and ED use frequency may be a flag for current/future problems. Prospective research is requiredexploring where ED use fits within the trajectory of other alcohol and drug use.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Peacock, A and Bruno, R and Ferris, J and Winstock, A
Keywords: Energy drink, Caffeine, Alcohol, Ecstasy, Stimulant
Journal or Publication Title: Drug and alcohol dependence
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0376-8716
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.010
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V.

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