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Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks: Dose relationship with self-reported physiological stimulation and sedation side effects

Droste, N, Peacock, A ORCID: 0000-0002-5705-2026, Bruno, R ORCID: 0000-0001-6673-833X, Pennay, A, Zinkiewicz, L, Lubman, DI and Miller, P 2017 , 'Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks: Dose relationship with self-reported physiological stimulation and sedation side effects' , Addictive behaviors, vol. 71 , pp. 68-74 , doi:

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Background: Negative physiological stimulation and sedation side effects are experienced by a significant proportionof consumers who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). Few studies have compared the frequencyof side effects between sessions of AmED and sessions of alcohol only within-subject, and none haveexplored a dose relationship.Objectives: Explore the occurrence of self-reported physiological stimulant and sedative side effects between sessionsof AmED and alcohol only, and at varying ED dosage levels within AmED sessions.Methods: A convenience sample of 2953 residents of New South Wales, Australia completed an online survey.N = 731 AmED users reported daily caffeine intake, typical alcohol and AmED consumption, and past 12-month experience of physiological stimulation and sedation side effects during AmED and alcohol only sessions.Within-subject analyses compared occurrence of side effects between session types. Hierarchical binary logisticregression analyses explored the association of ED dose during AmED sessions with the experience of physiologicalside effects.Results: There were greater odds of most stimulant side effects, and lower odds of sedation side effects, duringAmED sessions compared to alcohol only sessions. Compared to one ED, consumption of three or more EDswas significantly associated with the majority of both stimulant and alcohol intoxication side effects after controllingfor demographics and consumption covariates.Conclusions: AmED is associated with perceived changes in physiological stimulant and sedation side effects ofalcohol. Experience of side effects is positively associated with ED dosage. Future research should account forvarying ED dosage, and reflect real world consumption levels.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Droste, N and Peacock, A and Bruno, R and Pennay, A and Zinkiewicz, L and Lubman, DI and Miller, P
Keywords: alcohol energy drinks
Journal or Publication Title: Addictive behaviors
Publisher: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN: 0306-4603
DOI / ID Number:
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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