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Human–environmental drivers and impacts of the globally extreme 2017 Chilean fires

Bowman, DMJS ORCID: 0000-0003-2215-7685, Moreira-Munoz, A, Kolden, CA, Chavez, RO, Munoz, AA, Salinas, F, Gonzales-Reyes, A, Rocco, R, de la Barrera, F, Williamson, GJ ORCID: 0000-0002-3469-7550, Borchers, N, Cifuentes, LA, Abatzoglou, JT and Johnston, FH ORCID: 0000-0002-5150-8678 2018 , 'Human–environmental drivers and impacts of the globally extreme 2017 Chilean fires' , Ambio , pp. 1-13 , doi: 10.1007/s13280-018-1084-1.

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Abstract

In January 2017, hundreds of fires in Mediterranean Chile burnt more than 5000 km2, an area nearly 14 times the 40-year mean. We contextualize these fires in terms of estimates of global fire intensity using MODIS satellite record, and provide an overview of the climatic factors and recent changes in land use that led to the active fire season and estimate the impact of fire emissions to human health. The primary fire activity in late January coincided with extreme fire weather conditions including all-time (1979–2017) daily records for the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and maximum temperature, producing some of the most energetically intense fire events on Earth in the last 15-years. Fire activity was further enabled by a warm moist growing season in 2016 that interrupted an intense drought that started in 2010. The land cover in this region had been extensively modified, with less than 20% of the original native vegetation remaining, and extensive plantations of highly flammable exotic Pinus and Eucalyptus species established since the 1970s. These plantations were disproportionally burnt (44% of the burned area) in 2017, and associated with the highest fire severities, as part of an increasing trend of fire extent in plantations over the past three decades. Smoke from the fires exposed over 9.5 million people to increased concentrations of particulate air pollution, causing an estimated 76 premature deaths and 209 additional admissions to hospital for respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. This study highlights that Mediterranean biogeographic regions with expansive Pinus and Eucalyptus plantations and associated rural depopulation are vulnerable to intense wildfires with wide ranging social, economic, and environmental impacts, which are likely to become more frequent due to longer and more extreme wildfire seasons.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Bowman, DMJS and Moreira-Munoz, A and Kolden, CA and Chavez, RO and Munoz, AA and Salinas, F and Gonzales-Reyes, A and Rocco, R and de la Barrera, F and Williamson, GJ and Borchers, N and Cifuentes, LA and Abatzoglou, JT and Johnston, FH
Keywords: fire, climate, chile, smoke, fire weather, forest plantations, land cover change, Mediterranean climate, wildfire
Journal or Publication Title: Ambio
Publisher: Royal Swedish Acad Sciences
ISSN: 0044-7447
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s13280-018-1084-1
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2018 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

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