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Phenylpalladium(IV) Chemistry: Selectivity in Reductive Elimination from Palladium(IV) Complexes and Alkyl Halide Transfer from Palladium(IV) to Palladium(II)


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Markies, BA, Canty, AJ, Boersma, J and van Koten, G 1994 , 'Phenylpalladium(IV) Chemistry: Selectivity in Reductive Elimination from Palladium(IV) Complexes and Alkyl Halide Transfer from Palladium(IV) to Palladium(II)' , Organometallics, vol. 13, No. 5 , pp. 2053-2058 , doi: 10.1021/om00017a071.

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Methyl iodide, benzyl bromide, and benzyl iodide react with PdMePh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) in acetone at 0 C to form the isolable fac-triorganopalladium(IV) complexes PdIMe2Ph(bpy) (3) and PdXMePh(CH2Ph)(bpy) [X = Br (4), I (5)]. Complex 3 occurs as a mixture of isomers in a ca. 1:l ratio, involving the phenyl group in a position trans either to bpy (3a) or to iodine (3b), while complexes 4 and 5 are obtained as one isomer which, most likely, has
the benzyl group trans to the halogen. The selectivity of reductive elimination from a metal bonded to three different groups could be studied for the first time. The complexes undergo facile reductive elimination in (CD3)2CO at 0 C, in which PdIMe2Ph(bpy) gives a mixture of ethane and toluene in a 4:l molar ratio together with PdIR(bpy) (R = Ph, Me), whereas PdXMePh(CH2Ph)(bpy) (X = Br, I) gives exclusively toluene and PdX(CH2Ph)(bpy). The analogous tmeda complex, PdMePh(tmeda) (tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), reacts more slowly than PdMePh(bpy) with alkyl halides. Methyl iodide reacts cleanly with PdMePh(tmeda) at 0 C in (CD3)2C0 to form ethane and PdIPh(tmeda), but the expected palladium(IV) intermediate could not be detected. Benzyl bromide does not react with PdMePh(tmeda) below the decomposition temperature of the latter under these conditions (50 C, (CD3)2CO), while benzyl iodide reacts at 40 C to give a complicated mixture of products of which ethane, diphenylmethane, ethylbenzene, toluene, and PdIR(tmeda) (R = Me, Ph) could be identified. Benzyl iodide reacts with PdMe2(tmeda) at -30 C in (CD3)2CO to form PdIMe2(CH2Ph)(tmeda), for which lH NMR spectra showed the benzyl group to be trans to one of the N-donor atoms. However, PdIMe2(CH2Ph)(tmeda) is unstable and undergoes facile reductive elimination
to form ethane and PdI(CH2Ph)(tmeda). Transfer of alkyl and halide groups from palladium(IV) to palladium(II) complexes occurs in (CD3)2CO at low temperatures for several reaction systems in which the resulting palladium(IV) complex is known to be more stable than the
palladium(IV) reagent. There is a strong preference for benzyl group transfer from PdXMePh(CH2Ph)(bpy) to PdMe2(L2) (X = Br, I; L2 = bpy, phen). The mechanism of the transfer reactions is discussed in terms of the mechanism suggested earlier for alkyl halide transfer from
palladium(IV) to platinum(II), palladium(II) to palladium(O), cobalt(III) to cobalt(I), and rhodium(III) to rhodium(I). These reaction systems involve nucleophilic attack by the lower oxidation state reagent at an alkyl group attached to the higher oxidation state reagent.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Markies, BA and Canty, AJ and Boersma, J and van Koten, G
Journal or Publication Title: Organometallics
ISSN: 0276-7333
DOI / ID Number: 10.1021/om00017a071
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