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Influence of subject presentation on interpretation of body composition change after 6 months of self-selected training and diet in athletic males

Kerr, AD, Slater, GJ and Byrne, NM ORCID: 0000-0001-5310-6640 2018 , 'Influence of subject presentation on interpretation of body composition change after 6 months of self-selected training and diet in athletic males' , European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 118, no. 6 , pp. 1273-1286 , doi: 10.1007/s00421-018-3861-8.

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Abstract

Purpose: High precision body composition assessment methods accurately monitor physique traits in athletes. The acuteimpact of subject presentation (ad libitum food and fluid intake plus physical activity) on body composition estimation usingfield and laboratory methods has been quantified, but the impact on interpretation of longitudinal change is unknown. Thisstudy evaluated the impact of athlete presentation (standardised versus non-standardised) on interpretation of change inphysique traits over time. Thirty athletic males (31.2±7.5 years; 182.2±6.5 cm; 91.7±10.3 kg; 27.6±2.6 kg/m2) underwent two testing sessions on 1 day including surface anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectricalimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air displacement plethysmography (via the BOD POD), with combinations of these usedto establish three-compartment (3C) and four-compartment (4C) models.Methods: Tests were conducted after an overnight fast (BASEam) and ~7 h later after ad libitum food/fluid and physicalactivity (BASEpm). This procedure was repeated 6 months later (POSTam and POSTpm). Magnitude of changes in themean was assessed by standardisation.Results: After 6 months of self-selected training and diet, standardised presentation testing (BASEam to POSTam) identified trivial changes from the smallest worthwhile effect (SWE) in fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) for all methodsexcept for BIS (FM) where there was a large change (7.2%) from the SWE. Non-standardised follow-up testing (BASEamto POSTpm) showed trivial changes from the SWE except for small changes in FFM (BOD POD) of 1.1%, and in FM (3Cand 4C models) of 6.4 and 3.5%. Large changes from the SWE were found in FFM (BIS, 3C and 4C models) of 2.2, 1.8and 1.8% and in FM (BIS) of 6.4%. Non-standardised presentation testing (BASEpm to POSTpm) identified trivial changesfrom the SWE in FFM except for BIS which was small (1.1%). A moderate change from the SWE was found for BOD POD(3.3%) and large for BIS (9.4%) in FM estimations.Conclusions: Changes in body composition utilising non-standardised presentation were more substantial and often in theopposite direction to those identified using standardised presentation, causing misinterpretation of change in physique traits.Standardised presentation prior to body composition assessment for athletic populations should be advocated to enhanceinterpretation of true change.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Kerr, AD and Slater, GJ and Byrne, NM
Keywords: Body composition · Air-displacement plethysmography · Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry · Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy · Surface anthropometry
Journal or Publication Title: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISSN: 1439-6319
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s00421-018-3861-8
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2018 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

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