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A Review of Spartina Management in Washington State, US


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Hedge, P, Kriwoken, L and Patten, K (2003) A Review of Spartina Management in Washington State, US. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 41. pp. 82-90. ISSN 0146-6623

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Management of non-native
plants including
Spartina anglica
C. Hubb
(Ait.) Muhl. in Washington State, U.S. evolved during
the 1990s from small-scale field trials to a large-scale integrated
pest management program. The development and implementation
of the program were significantly hindered by
stakeholder conflict, particularly regarding the use of herbicide
in estuarine environments. In 1995, Washington State
Department of Agriculture was appointed to manage these
invasive species. Agency coordination and strategy reviews
were undertaken. A wide range of control techniques, including
physical removal, mowing and herbicide, were established,
with all techniques demonstrating considerable
limitations. The combination of mowing and herbicide provided
the greatest efficacy but was expensive. Development
of biological control options is in progress but will take years
to prove effectiveness for
management. Program
progress based on existing mapping and efficacy data is difficult
to gauge. This program demonstrates that
plants are difficult and expensive to eradicate. Between 1995
and 2000, infestations increased in area by 250%, affecting
more than 8,093 ha of intertidal land. During this period, approximately
15% of the infestation was treated annually. Although
the program has evolved considerably, substantially
increasing knowledge on the management of
, infestations
in Washington State continue to present a range of
management challenges, including the development of a
standardized and integrated mapping procedures, cost-effective
control techniques and improvements to stakeholder

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Hedge, P and Kriwoken, L and Patten, K
Keywords: Integrated pest management, saltmarsh grass, rice grass, cordgrass, coastal weeds, Spartina
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Aquatic Plant Management
Page Range: pp. 82-90
ISSN: 0146-6623
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2008 21:02
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 03:27
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