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Type 2 diabetes mellitus, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline

Moran, C, Beare, R, Wang, W, Callisaya, ML ORCID: 0000-0003-2122-1622 and Srikanth, V 2019 , 'Type 2 diabetes mellitus, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline' , Neurology, vol. 92, no. 8 , e823-e830 , doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006955.

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Abstract

Objective: To study longitudinal relationships between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cortical thickness, and cognitive function in older people with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease (AD).Methods: The sample was derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who underwent brain MRI and cognitive tests annually for 5 years. Presence of T2DM was based on fasting blood glucose ≥7.0mml/L or the use of glucose-lowering agents. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore longitudinal relationships between T2DM, cortical thickness, and cognitive function, adjusting for relevant covariates and testing for interactions.Results: There were 124 people with T2DM (mean age 75.5 years, SD 6.2) and 693 without T2DM (mean age 75.1 years, SD 6.9) with at least 1 MRI available. AD and lower cortical thickness at study entry was associated with a lower chance of having a MRI available at each follow-up phase (all p p = 0.01). We found no direct effect of T2DM on decline in cortical thickness or cognitive function, but there was an indirect pathway linking T2DM and cognitive decline via baseline cortical thickness (β = -0.17, p = 0.022). There was an interaction between T2DM and education whereby the negative effect of T2DM on baseline cortical thickness was reduced in those with greater education (β = 0.34, p = 0.037). These associations changed minimally when adjusted for baseline cognitive diagnosis.Conclusions: In an older cohort with low cerebrovascular disease burden, T2DM contributes to cognitive decline via neurodegeneration. Prior brain and cognitive reserve may protect against this effect.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Moran, C and Beare, R and Wang, W and Callisaya, ML and Srikanth, V
Keywords: diabetes, brain, dementia
Journal or Publication Title: Neurology
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN: 0028-3878
DOI / ID Number: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006955
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2019 American Academy of Neurology

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