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A practical framework for implementing and evaluating integrated management of marine activities

Stephenson, RL, Hobday, AJ, Cvitanovic, C, Alexander, KA ORCID: 0000-0001-8801-413X, Begg, GA, Bustamante, RH, Dunstan, PK, Frusher, S ORCID: 0000-0003-2493-3676, Fudge, ME ORCID: 0000-0003-1327-0053, Fulton, EA, Haward, M ORCID: 0000-0003-4775-0864, Macleod, C ORCID: 0000-0002-0539-6361, McDonald, J ORCID: 0000-0002-7953-1458, Nash, KL ORCID: 0000-0003-0976-3197, Ogier, E ORCID: 0000-0001-6157-5279, Pecl, G ORCID: 0000-0003-0192-4339, Plaganyi, EE, van Putten, I, Smith, T and Ward, TM 2019 , 'A practical framework for implementing and evaluating integrated management of marine activities' , Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 177 , pp. 127-138 , doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.04.008.

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Despite frequent calls for Integrated Management (IM) of coastal and marine activities, there is no consensus onthe ‘recipe’ for successful adoption and implementation, and there has been insufficient evaluation of successesand failures of IM to date. The primary rationale for IM is to overcome four major deficiencies of sector-basedmanagement: a) management of diverse activities by different agencies using different approaches, b) managementgenerally focused on a subset of primarily ecological objectives that do not properly articulate orevaluate social, cultural, economic and institutional objectives, c) no mechanisms to evaluate or advise on tradeoffsamong objectives of activities in relation to objectives and d) no mechanisms to evaluate the cumulativeeffects of all managed activities. To help overcome this gap in knowledge, here we draw on our collectiveexperiences working in Australia and Canada to develop and articulate a framework to help guide the practicalimplementation and evaluation of IM, which we define as: ‘An approach that links (integrates) planning, decision makingand management arrangements across sectors in a unified framework, to enable a more comprehensive view ofsustainability and the consideration of cumulative effects and trade-offs.’ We argue that IM will be most easily and effectively achieved by linking and modifying existing sector-based plansin an overarching IM initiative that has nine key features: 1) Recognition of need for IM, 2) A shared vision bystakeholders and decision-makers for IM, 3) Appropriate legal and institutional frameworks for coordinated decision making,4) Sufficient and effective processes for stakeholder engagement and participation, 5) A common andcomprehensive set of operational objectives, 6) Explicit consideration of trade-offs and cumulative impacts, 7)Flexibility to adapt to changing conditions, 8) Processes for ongoing review and refinement, and 9) Effective resourcing,capacity, leadership and tools. Drawing on these features we then articulate a process for the implementationand evaluation of IM that recognises five phases: i) Preconditions and drivers of change, ii) Intentionaldesign and institutional rearrangement, iii) Enablers and disablers iv) An implemented IM process, and v) Review ofIM performance and modification. Combination of the nine features of IM with the five phases in IM developmentprovides a framework for implementation and a lens for evaluation of IM processes. We suggest that this frameworkprovides a guide to the appropriate design of practical IM, which will assist in overcoming the current managementdeficiencies and improve the sustainability of marine resources in the face of change.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Stephenson, RL and Hobday, AJ and Cvitanovic, C and Alexander, KA and Begg, GA and Bustamante, RH and Dunstan, PK and Frusher, S and Fudge, ME and Fulton, EA and Haward, M and Macleod, C and McDonald, J and Nash, KL and Ogier, E and Pecl, G and Plaganyi, EE and van Putten, I and Smith, T and Ward, TM
Keywords: marine governance, marine spatial planning, ecosystem-based management, trade-offs, cumulative impacts, Canada, Australia
Journal or Publication Title: Ocean and Coastal Management
Publisher: Elsevier Sci Ltd
ISSN: 0964-5691
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.04.008
Copyright Information:

© 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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