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Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends

Sutton, AJ, Feely, RA, Maenner-Jones, S, Musielwicz, S, Osborne, J, Dietrich, C, Monacci, N, Cross, J, Bott, R, Kozyr, A, Andersson, AJ, Bates, NR, Cai, WJ, Cronin, MF, De Carlo, EH, Hales, B, Howden, SD, Lee, CM, Manzello, DP, McPhaden, MJ, Melendez, M, Mickett, JB, Newton, JA, Noakes, SE, Noh, JH, Olafsdottir, SR, Salisbury, JE, Send, U, Trull, TW, Vandemark, DC and Weller, RA 2019 , 'Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends' , Earth System Science Data, vol. 11, no. 1 , pp. 421-439 , doi:

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Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, arecritical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability tocharacterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide(CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomousmarine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led tothe expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improvingthe capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here,we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface oceanpCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) time seriesestablished between 2004 and 2013, 17 also include autonomous pHmeasurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface oceancarbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), andcoral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodologyapplied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannualvariability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the lengthof sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significantanthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates forseawater pCO2 and pH range from 8 to 15 years at the openocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at thecoral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO2 time series,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS)in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, havebeen deployed longer than the estimated trend detection time and, for these,deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3and 1.6±0.3 µatm yr−1, respectively. In the future, itis possible that updates to this product will allow for the estimation ofanthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides avaluable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and naturalvariability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions.Data are available at and (Sutton etal., 2018).

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Sutton, AJ and Feely, RA and Maenner-Jones, S and Musielwicz, S and Osborne, J and Dietrich, C and Monacci, N and Cross, J and Bott, R and Kozyr, A and Andersson, AJ and Bates, NR and Cai, WJ and Cronin, MF and De Carlo, EH and Hales, B and Howden, SD and Lee, CM and Manzello, DP and McPhaden, MJ and Melendez, M and Mickett, JB and Newton, JA and Noakes, SE and Noh, JH and Olafsdottir, SR and Salisbury, JE and Send, U and Trull, TW and Vandemark, DC and Weller, RA
Keywords: carbon dioxide, seawater, CO2 uptake, biogeochemistry
Journal or Publication Title: Earth System Science Data
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
ISSN: 1866-3508
DOI / ID Number:
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Copyright 2019 The Authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

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