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Acceleration and overturning of the Antarctic Slope Current by winds, eddies, and tides

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Stewart, AL, Klocker, A ORCID: 0000-0002-2038-7922 and Menemenlis, D 2019 , 'Acceleration and overturning of the Antarctic Slope Current by winds, eddies, and tides' , Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 49 , pp. 2043-2074 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0221.1.

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Abstract

All exchanges between the open ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf must cross the Antarctic Slope Current (ASC). Previous studies indicate that these exchanges are strongly influenced by mesoscale and tidal variability, yet the mechanisms responsible for setting the ASC’s transport and structure have received relatively little attention. In this study the roles of winds, eddies, and tides in accelerating the ASC are investigated using a global ocean–sea ice simulation with very high resolution (1/48° grid spacing). It is found that the circulation along the continental slope is accelerated both by surface stresses, ultimately sourced from the easterly winds, and by mesoscale eddy vorticity fluxes. At the continental shelf break, the ASC exhibits a narrow (~30–50 km), swift (>0.2 m s−1) jet, consistent with in situ observations. In this jet the surface stress is substantially reduced, and may even vanish or be directed eastward, because the ocean surface speed matches or exceeds that of the sea ice. The shelfbreak jet is shown to be accelerated by tidal momentum advection, consistent with the phenomenon of tidal rectification. Consequently, the shoreward Ekman transport vanishes and thus the mean overturning circulation that steepens the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) is primarily due to tidal acceleration. These findings imply that the circulation and mean overturning of the ASC are not only determined by near-Antarctic winds, but also depend crucially on sea ice cover, regionally-dependent mesoscale eddy activity over the continental slope, and the amplitude of tidal flows across the continental shelf break.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Stewart, AL and Klocker, A and Menemenlis, D
Keywords: Antarctic Slope Current, eddies, tides, Antarctic margins, ocean model
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Physical Oceanography
Publisher: Amer Meteorological Soc
ISSN: 0022-3670
DOI / ID Number: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0221.1
Copyright Information:

© Copyright 2019 American Meteorological Society. Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. All AMS journals and monograph publications are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (http://www.copyright.com). Questions about permission to use materials for which AMS holds the copyright can also be directed to permissions@ametsoc.org. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement, available on the AMS website (http://www.ametsoc.org/CopyrightInformation).

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