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Acute Physical Exercise Can Infuence the Accuracy of Metacognitive Judgments

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Palmer, MA ORCID: 0000-0002-3467-3364, Stefanidis, K, Turner, A, Tranent, PJ ORCID: 0000-0002-2701-0466, Breen, R ORCID: 0000-0002-2727-5763, Kucina, T, Brumby, L, Holt, G ORCID: 0000-0002-4839-3283, Fell, JW ORCID: 0000-0001-6094-9865 and Sauer, JD ORCID: 0000-0002-0872-3647 2019 , 'Acute Physical Exercise Can Infuence the Accuracy of Metacognitive Judgments' , Scientific Reports, vol. 9 , pp. 1-12 , doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-48861-3.

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Abstract

Acute exercise generally benefits memory but little research has examined how exercise affects metacognition (knowledge of memory performance). We show that a single bout of exercise can influence metacognition in paired-associate learning. Participants completed 30-min of moderate-intensity exercise before or after studying a series of word pairs (cloud-ivory), and completed cued-recall (cloud-?; Experiments 1 & 2) and recognition memory tests (cloud-? spoon; ivory; drill; choir; Experiment 2). Participants made judgments of learning prior to cued-recall tests (JOLs; predicted likelihood of recalling the second word of each pair when shown the first) and feeling-of-knowing judgments prior to recognition tests (FOK; predicted likelihood of recognizing the second word from four alternatives). Compared to no-exercise control conditions, exercise before encoding enhanced cued-recall in Experiment 1 but not Experiment 2 and did not affect recognition. Exercise after encoding did not influence memory. In conditions where exercise did not benefit memory, it increased JOLs and FOK judgments relative to accuracy (Experiments 1 & 2) and impaired the relative accuracy of JOLs (ability to distinguish remembered from non-remembered items; Experiment 2). Acute exercise seems to signal likely remembering; this has implications for understanding the effects of exercise on metacognition, and for incorporating exercise into study routines.Introduction

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Palmer, MA and Stefanidis, K and Turner, A and Tranent, PJ and Breen, R and Kucina, T and Brumby, L and Holt, G and Fell, JW and Sauer, JD
Keywords: memory, metacognition, exercise
Journal or Publication Title: Scientific Reports
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI / ID Number: 10.1038/s41598-019-48861-3
Copyright Information:

© The Author(s) 2019.Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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