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Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria


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Khalid, GM, Jatau, AI, Ibrahim, UI, Dungus, FM, Shitu, Z, Sha'aban, A and Burji, SL 2019 , 'Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria' , Point of Care , pp. 1-8 , doi: 10.1177/2399202619846847.

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Introduction: The burden of antibiotic self-medication (ASM) is increasing and becoming a global health threat due toantibiotics resistance. However, little is known about ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students who are the futurecustodians of medicines including antibiotics. Therefore, this study aims to develop, validate and utilize an online surveytool to investigate the prevalence of ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey form was developed, validated by face validity, content validity, and pilotstudy. The hyperlink to the online survey form was shared with undergraduate pharmacy students in northern Nigeria viaWhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter. Data were collected from eligible participants and analyzed using descriptive statistic.Results: A total of 217 students responded to the online survey, with a completion rate of 100%. Of the total numberof respondents, 200 (92.2%) reported practicing ASM at least once in their lifetime. The major reasons for ASM wereprevious knowledge (40.4%) and having no time to see a doctor or pharmacist (27.5%). Amoxicillin (32.6%), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (32.1%), Ampicillin/Cloxacillin (21.7%) and Ciprofloxacin (22.6%) were the most commonly implicatedantibiotics in ASM. Cough, diarrhea, typhoid, and wound were the most frequently involved conditions. Patent medicinevendors (75.4%) and community pharmacies (29.4%) were the common source of antibiotics subjected to ASM.Conclusion: A research tool to assess ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students has been developed, validatedand utilized. The prevalence of ASM is high among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria. Interventionsto improve knowledge and awareness on ASM are needed among undergraduate pharmacy students to ensure antibioticstewardship.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Khalid, GM and Jatau, AI and Ibrahim, UI and Dungus, FM and Shitu, Z and Sha'aban, A and Burji, SL
Keywords: antibiotic, Nigeria, pharmacy, self-medication, stewardship, students, undergraduate
Journal or Publication Title: Point of Care
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN: 1533-029X
DOI / ID Number: 10.1177/2399202619846847
Copyright Information:

© The Author(s) 2019. Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

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