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Happy feet in a hostile world? The future of penguins depends on proactive management of current and expected threats

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Ropert-Coudert, Y, Chiaradia, A, Ainley, D, Barbosa, A, Boersma, PD, Brasso, R, Dewar, M, Ellenberg, U, Garcia-Borboroglu, P, Emmerson, L, Hickcox, R, Jenouvrier, S, Kato, A, McIntosh, RR, Lewis, P, Ramirez, F, Ruoppolo, V, Ryan, PG, Seddon, PJ, Sherley, RB, Vanstreels, RET, Waller, LJ, Woehler, EJ ORCID: 0000-0002-1125-0748 and Trathan, PN 2019 , 'Happy feet in a hostile world? The future of penguins depends on proactive management of current and expected threats' , Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6, no. MAY , pp. 1-23 , doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00248.

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Abstract

Penguins face a wide range of threats. Most observed population changes have been negative and have happened over the last 60 years. Today, populations of 11 penguin species are decreasing. Here we present a review that synthesizes details of threats faced by the world’s 18 species of penguins. We discuss alterations to their environment at both breeding sites on land and at sea where they forage. The major drivers of change appear to be climate, and food web alterations by marine fisheries. In addition, we also consider other critical and/or emerging threats, namely human disturbance near nesting sites, pollution due to oil, plastics and chemicals such as mercury and persistent organic compounds. Finally, we assess the importance of emerging pathogens and diseases on the health of penguins. We suggest that in the context of climate change, habitat degradation, introduced exotic species and resource competition with fisheries, successful conservation outcomes will require new and unprecedented levels of science and advocacy. Successful conservation stories of penguin species across their geographical range have occurred where there has been concerted effort across local, national and international boundaries to implement effective conservation planning.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Ropert-Coudert, Y and Chiaradia, A and Ainley, D and Barbosa, A and Boersma, PD and Brasso, R and Dewar, M and Ellenberg, U and Garcia-Borboroglu, P and Emmerson, L and Hickcox, R and Jenouvrier, S and Kato, A and McIntosh, RR and Lewis, P and Ramirez, F and Ruoppolo, V and Ryan, PG and Seddon, PJ and Sherley, RB and Vanstreels, RET and Waller, LJ and Woehler, EJ and Trathan, PN
Keywords: penguin, Spheniscidae, threats, mitigation, pollution, climate change, fisheries
Journal or Publication Title: Frontiers in Marine Science
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI / ID Number: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00248
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2019 Ropert-Coudert, Chiaradia, Ainley, Barbosa, Boersma, Brasso,Dewar, Ellenberg, García-Borboroglu, Emmerson, Hickcox, Jenouvrier, Kato,McIntosh, Lewis, Ramírez, Ruoppolo, Ryan, Seddon, Sherley, Vanstreels, Waller,Woehler and Trathan. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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