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Factors associated with muscular fitness phenotypes in Australian children: a cross-sectional study

Fraser, BJ ORCID: 0000-0002-1752-5431, Blizzard, L ORCID: 0000-0002-9541-6943, Cleland, V ORCID: 0000-0001-8358-3237, Schmidt, MD, Smith, KJ ORCID: 0000-0003-2793-3460, Gall, SL ORCID: 0000-0002-5138-2526, Dwyer, T, Venn, AJ ORCID: 0000-0001-7090-1398 and Magnussen, CG ORCID: 0000-0002-6238-5730 2020 , 'Factors associated with muscular fitness phenotypes in Australian children: a cross-sectional study' , Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 38, no. 1 , pp. 38-45 , doi: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1679575.

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To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Fraser, BJ and Blizzard, L and Cleland, V and Schmidt, MD and Smith, KJ and Gall, SL and Dwyer, T and Venn, AJ and Magnussen, CG
Keywords: muscle strength, muscular power, epidemiology, cohort, children
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Sports Sciences
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
ISSN: 0264-0414
DOI / ID Number: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1679575
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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