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Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort

Navaranjan, G, Takaro, TK, Wheeler, AJ ORCID: 0000-0001-9288-8163, Diamond, ML, Shu, H, Azad, MB, Becker, AB, Dai, R, Harris, SA, Lefebvre, DL, Lu, Z, Mandhane, PJ, McLean, K, Moraes, TJ, Scott, JA, Turvey, SE, Sears, MR, Subbarao, P and Brook, JR 2020 , 'Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort' , Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 1 , pp. 70-85 , doi:

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Background: Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life.Objective: To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood.Methods: Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA.Results: The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 °C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age.Conclusions: Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Navaranjan, G and Takaro, TK and Wheeler, AJ and Diamond, ML and Shu, H and Azad, MB and Becker, AB and Dai, R and Harris, SA and Lefebvre, DL and Lu, Z and Mandhane, PJ and McLean, K and Moraes, TJ and Scott, JA and Turvey, SE and Sears, MR and Subbarao, P and Brook, JR
Keywords: biological monitoring, children, exposure assessment, phthalates, socioeconomic status, urine, longitudinal
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
ISSN: 1559-064X
DOI / ID Number:
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Copyright 2019 The Authors, under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

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