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Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis

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Martineau, AR, Jolliffe, DA, Greenberg, L, Aloia, JF, Bergman, P, Dubnov-Raz, G, Esposito, S, Ganmaa, D, Ginde, AA, Goodall, EC, Grant, CC, Janssens, W, Jensen, ME, Kerley, CP, Laaksi, I, Manaseki-Holland, S, Mauger, D, Murdoch, DR, Neale, R, Rees, JR, Simpson Jr, S ORCID: 0000-0001-6521-3056, Stelmach, I, Kumar, GT, Urashima, M, Camargo Jr, CA, Griffiths, CJ and Hooper, RL 2019 , 'Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis' , Health Technology Assessment, vol. 23, no. 2 , pp. 1-44 , doi: 10.3310/hta23020.

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Abstract

Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the potential of vitamin D to prevent acute respiratory infections have yielded mixed results. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis has the potential to identify factors that may explain this heterogeneity.Objectives: To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and to identify factors modifying this effect.Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) registry.Study Selection: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 of any duration having incidence of acute respiratory infection as a prespecified efficacy outcome were selected.Study Appraisal: Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool to assess sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors, completeness of outcome data, evidence of selective outcome reporting and other potential threats to validity.Results: We identified 25 eligible RCTs (a total of 11,321 participants, aged from 0 to 95 years). IPD were obtained for 10,933 out of 11,321 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of ARI among all participants [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.96; heterogeneity p Limitations: Our study had limited power to detect the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of upper versus lower respiratory infection, analysed separately.Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation was safe, and it protected against ARIs overall. Very deficient individuals and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the benefit. Incorporation of additional IPD from ongoing trials in the field has the potential to increase statistical power for analyses of secondary outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Martineau, AR and Jolliffe, DA and Greenberg, L and Aloia, JF and Bergman, P and Dubnov-Raz, G and Esposito, S and Ganmaa, D and Ginde, AA and Goodall, EC and Grant, CC and Janssens, W and Jensen, ME and Kerley, CP and Laaksi, I and Manaseki-Holland, S and Mauger, D and Murdoch, DR and Neale, R and Rees, JR and Simpson Jr, S and Stelmach, I and Kumar, GT and Urashima, M and Camargo Jr, CA and Griffiths, CJ and Hooper, RL
Journal or Publication Title: Health Technology Assessment
Publisher: National Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment
ISSN: 1366-5278
DOI / ID Number: 10.3310/hta23020
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