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Analysis of cosmic rays' atmospheric effects and their relationships to cutoff rigidity and zenith angle using global muon detector network data

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Mendonca, RRS, Wang, C, Braga, CR, Echer, E, Dal Lago, A, Costa, JER, Munakata, K, Li, H, Liu, Z, Raulin, JP, Kuwabara, T, Kozai, M, Kato, C, Rockenbach, M, Schuch, NJ, Al Jassar, HK, Sharma, MM, Tokumaru, M, Duldig, ML ORCID: 0000-0001-7463-8267, Humble, JE ORCID: 0000-0002-4698-1671, Evenson, P and Sabbah, I 2019 , 'Analysis of cosmic rays' atmospheric effects and their relationships to cutoff rigidity and zenith angle using global muon detector network data' , Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 124, no. 12 , pp. 9791-9813 , doi: 10.1029/2019JA026651.

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Abstract

Cosmic rays are charged particles whose flux observed at Earth shows temporal variations related to space weather phenomena and may be an important tool to study them. The cosmic ray intensity recorded with ground-based detectors also shows temporal variations arising from atmospheric variations. In the case of muon detectors, the main atmospheric effects are related to pressure and temperature changes. In this work, we analyze both effects using data recorded by the Global Muon Detector Network, consisting of four multidirectional muon detectors at different locations, in the period between 2007 and 2016. For each Global Muon Detector Network directional channel, we obtain coefficients that describe the pressure and temperature effects. We then analyze how these coefficients can be related to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity and zenith angle associated with cosmic ray particles observed by each channel. In the pressure effect analysis, we found that the observed barometric coefficients show a very clear logarithmic correlation with the cutoff rigidity divided by the zenith angle cosine. On the other hand, the temperature coefficients show a good logarithmic correlation with the product of the cutoff and zenith angle cosine after adding a term proportional to the sine of geographical latitude of the observation site. This additional term implies that the temperature effect measured in the Northern Hemisphere detectors is stronger than that observed in the Southern Hemisphere. The physical origin of this term and of the good correlations found in this analysis should be studied in detail in future works.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Mendonca, RRS and Wang, C and Braga, CR and Echer, E and Dal Lago, A and Costa, JER and Munakata, K and Li, H and Liu, Z and Raulin, JP and Kuwabara, T and Kozai, M and Kato, C and Rockenbach, M and Schuch, NJ and Al Jassar, HK and Sharma, MM and Tokumaru, M and Duldig, ML and Humble, JE and Evenson, P and Sabbah, I
Keywords: muon telescope, geomagnetic cutoff, pressure and temperature coefficients
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 2169-9380
DOI / ID Number: 10.1029/2019JA026651
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2019 The Authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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