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Comprehensive Researcher Achievement Model (CRAM): a framework for measuring researcher achievement, impact and influence derived from a systematic literature review of metrics and models

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Braithwaite, J, Herkes, J, Churruca, K, Long, JC, Pomare, C, Boyling, C, Bierbaum, M, Clay-Williams, R, Rapport, F, Shih, P, Hogden, A ORCID: 0000-0002-4317-7960, Ellis, LA, Ludlow, K, Austin, E, Seah, R, McPherson, E, Hibbert, PD and Westbrook, J 2019 , 'Comprehensive Researcher Achievement Model (CRAM): a framework for measuring researcher achievement, impact and influence derived from a systematic literature review of metrics and models' , B M J Group, vol. 9 , pp. 1-10 , doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025320.

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Abstract

Objectives: Effective researcher assessment is key todecisions about funding allocations, promotion and tenure.We aimed to identify what is known about methods forassessing researcher achievements, leading to a newcomposite assessment model.Design: We systematically reviewed the literature viathe Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review andMeta-Analysis Protocols framework.Data sources: All Web of Science databases (includingCore Collection, MEDLINE and BIOSIS Citation Index) to theend of 2017.Eligibility criteria: (1) English language, (2) publishedin the last 10 years (2007–2017), (3) full text wasavailable and (4) the article discussed an approach to theassessment of an individual researcher’s achievements.Data extraction and synthesis: Articles were allocatedamong four pairs of reviewers for screening, with eachpair randomly assigned 5% of their allocation to reviewconcurrently against inclusion criteria. Inter-rater reliabilitywas assessed using Cohen’s Kappa (ĸ). The ĸ statisticshowed agreement ranging from moderate to almostperfect (0.4848–0.9039). Following screening, selectedarticles underwent full-text review and bias was assessed.Results: Four hundred and seventy-eight articles wereincluded in the final review. Established approachesdeveloped prior to our inclusion period (eg, citations andoutputs, h-index and journal impact factor) remaineddominant in the literature and in practice. New bibliometricmethods and models emerged in the last 10 yearsincluding: measures based on PageRank algorithms or‘altmetric’ data, methods to apply peer judgement andtechniques to assign values to publication quantity andquality. Each assessment method tended to prioritisecertain aspects of achievement over others.Conclusions: All metrics and models focus on an elementor elements at the expense of others. A new compositedesign, the Comprehensive Researcher Achievement Model (CRAM), is presented, which supersedes pastanachronistic models. The CRAM is modifiable to a rangeof applications.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Braithwaite, J and Herkes, J and Churruca, K and Long, JC and Pomare, C and Boyling, C and Bierbaum, M and Clay-Williams, R and Rapport, F and Shih, P and Hogden, A and Ellis, LA and Ludlow, K and Austin, E and Seah, R and McPherson, E and Hibbert, PD and Westbrook, J
Keywords: Measurement of researcher achievement; model
Journal or Publication Title: B M J Group
Publisher: B M J Group
ISSN: 2044-6055
DOI / ID Number: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025320
Copyright Information:

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. Nocommercial re-use.

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