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Psychometric validation of the Turkish gaming disorder test: A measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization framework


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Evren, C, Pontes, HM ORCID: 0000-0001-8020-7623, Dalbudak, E, Evren, B, Topcu, M and Kutlu, N 2020 , 'Psychometric validation of the Turkish gaming disorder test: A measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization framework' , Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 2 , pp. 1-8 , doi: 10.5455/PCP.20200429072430.

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Background: Previous research on gaming disorder (GD) used psychometric tools, which evaluatesaccording to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) diagnostic framework. The Gaming DisorderTest (GDT), a standardized measure to assess symptoms and prevalence of GD according to the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) diagnostic framework. The main aim of the current study was to adapt theGDT to Turkish.Methods: In the present study participants were assessed with the GDT, the Internet Gaming DisorderScale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), and the CAGE-Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (CAGE-PIUQ). Thefactor structure of the scale was tested with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and reliability andvalidity analyses were conducted.Results: A sample of 932 Turkish gamers (58.3% male, mean age 23.64 years, SD=5.42) was recruitedonline. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the unidimensional factor structure of theGDT was satisfactory. The scale was also reliable (i.e., internally consistent with a Cronbach’s alphaof 0.879) and showed adequate convergent and criterion-related validity, as indicated by statisticallysignificant positive correlations between average time daily spent playing games (ATDSPG) during lastyear, IGDS9-SF and CAGE-PIUQ scores. By applying the International Classification of Diseases 11thedition (ICD-11) threshold for diagnosing GD (e.g., meeting all four criteria by answering them eitherwith ‘often’ [4] or ‘very often’ [5]), it was found that the prevalence of GD is 1.9% (n = 18).Conclusions: Online gaming preference, ATDSPG and probable ADHD predicted the severity ofdisordered gaming. These findings support the Turkish version of the GDT as a valid and reliable toolfor determining the extent of GD related problems among young adults and for the purposes of earlyGD diagnosis in clinical settings and similar research.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Evren, C and Pontes, HM and Dalbudak, E and Evren, B and Topcu, M and Kutlu, N
Keywords: e-sports, gaming disorder, GDT, Internet, scale, university students, young adults
Journal or Publication Title: Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISSN: 2475-0573
DOI / ID Number: 10.5455/PCP.20200429072430
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Copyright 2020 Turkish Association for Psychopharmacology (TAP)Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

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