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Hypoxia during incubation does not affect aerobic performance or haematology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) when re-exposed in later life

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Wood, At, Andrewartha, SJ ORCID: 0000-0003-1973-9502, Elliott, NG, Frappell, PB and Clark, TD 2019 , 'Hypoxia during incubation does not affect aerobic performance or haematology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) when re-exposed in later life' , Conservation Physiology, vol. 7, no. 1 , pp. 1-13 , doi: 10.1093/conphys/coz088.

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Abstract

Hypoxia in aquatic ecosystems is becoming increasingly prevalent, potentially reducing fish performance and survival by limiting the oxygen available for aerobic activities. Hypoxia is a challenge for conserving and managing fish populations and demands a better understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of hypoxic environments on fish performance. Fish acclimate to hypoxia via a variety of short- and long-term physiological modifications in an attempt to maintain aerobic performance. In particular, hypoxia exposure during early development may result in enduring cardio-respiratory modifications that affect future hypoxia acclimation capacity, yet this possibility remains poorly investigated. We incubated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in normoxia (∼100% dissolved oxygen [DO, as percent air saturation]), moderate hypoxia (∼63% DO) or cyclical hypoxia (100-25% DO daily) from fertilization until 113 days post-fertilization prior to rearing all groups in normoxia for a further 8 months. At ∼11 months of age, subsets of each group were acclimated to hypoxia (50% DO) for up to 44 days prior to haematology, aerobic metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance measurements. Hypoxia exposure during incubation (fertilization to 113 days post-fertilization) did not affect the haematology, aerobic performance or hypoxia tolerance of juvenile salmon in later life. Juveniles acclimated to hypoxia increased maximum aerobic metabolic rate and aerobic scope by ∼23 and ∼52%, respectively, when measured at 50% DO but not at 100% DO. Hypoxia-incubated juveniles also increased haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration but did not affect acute hypoxia tolerance (critical oxygen level and DO at LOE). Thus, while Atlantic salmon possess a considerable capacity to physiologically acclimate to hypoxia by improving aerobic performance in low oxygen conditions, we found no evidence that this capacity is influenced by early-life hypoxia exposure.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Wood, At and Andrewartha, SJ and Elliott, NG and Frappell, PB and Clark, TD
Keywords: Atlantic salmon, hypoxia, aerobic capacity
Journal or Publication Title: Conservation Physiology
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISSN: 2051-1434
DOI / ID Number: 10.1093/conphys/coz088
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2019 the authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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