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In and against the State: The dynamics of environmental activism

Hasler, O ORCID: 0000-0001-6482-6619, Walters, R and White, R ORCID: 0000-0002-8800-0093 2019 , 'In and against the State: The dynamics of environmental activism' , Critical Criminology , doi: 10.1007/s10612-019-09432-0.

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The emerging and changing roles of environmental activists pose interesting questions forcriminological inquiry. On the one hand, environmental activism has become pivotal to theimplementation, compliance and regulation of environmental policies. For example, theresources and technologies of environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) areincreasingly employed by state agencies to help identify, monitor and prosecute environmental crime. In this sense, environmental activism has become a quasi-arm of the statein preventing environmental crime. On the other hand, environmental activists have beentargeted by state legislatures and enforcement agencies as “eco-terrorists” and ideologicalwarriors who impede trade, economic prosperity and the aspirations of private enterprise.As such, protecting the environment through protest has become an increasingly dangerousendeavor with harassment, persecution and death of activists occurring at the hands of bothstates and corporations. In these instances, environmental activists are perceived as a threatto the corporations and states that seek proft through the exploitation of natural resources.Thus, it can be argued that the relationship between those seeking to protect the environment and the state is paradoxical, involving both collaboration and coercion, and dynamism and danger. This article addresses the relationship between environmental activistsand government. It examines three diferent dynamics between activists and states workingto develop environmental policies, each with varying levels of trust and cooperation.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Hasler, O and Walters, R and White, R
Journal or Publication Title: Critical Criminology
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
ISSN: 1205-8629
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s10612-019-09432-0
Copyright Information:

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

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