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Does the virus cross the road? Viral phylogeographic patterns among bobcat populations reflect a history of urban development

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Kozakiewicz, CP, Burridge, CP ORCID: 0000-0002-8185-6091, Funk, WC, Craft, ME, Crooks, KR, Fisher, RN, Fountain-Jones, NM, Jennings, MK, Kraberger, SJ, Lee, JS, Lyren, LM, Riley, SPD, Serieys, LEK, VandeWoude, S and Carver, S ORCID: 0000-0002-3579-7588 2020 , 'Does the virus cross the road? Viral phylogeographic patterns among bobcat populations reflect a history of urban development' , Evolutionary Applications, vol. 13, no. 8 , pp. 1806-1817 , doi: 10.1111/eva.12927.

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Abstract

Urban development has major impacts on connectivity among wildlife populations and is thus likely an important factor shaping pathogen transmission in wildlife. However, most investigations of wildlife diseases in urban areas focus on prevalence and infection risk rather than potential effects of urbanization on transmission itself. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a directly transmitted retrovirus that infects many felid species and can be used as a model for studying pathogen transmission at landscape scales. We investigated phylogenetic relationships among FIV isolates sampled from five bobcat (Lynx rufus) populations in coastal southern California that appear isolated due to major highways and dense urban development. Divergence dates among FIV phylogenetic lineages in several cases reflected historical urban growth and construction of major highways. We found strong FIV phylogeographic structure among three host populations north‐west of Los Angeles, largely coincident with host genetic structure. In contrast, relatively little FIV phylogeographic structure existed among two genetically distinct host populations south‐east of Los Angeles. Rates of FIV transfer among host populations did not vary significantly, with the lack of phylogenetic structure south‐east of Los Angeles unlikely to reflect frequent contemporary transmission among populations. Our results indicate that major barriers to host gene flow can also act as barriers to pathogen spread, suggesting potentially reduced susceptibility of fragmented populations to novel directly transmitted pathogens. Infrequent exchange of FIV among host populations suggests that populations would best be managed as distinct units in the event of a severe disease outbreak. Phylogeographic inference of pathogen transmission is useful for estimating the ability of geographic barriers to constrain disease spread and can provide insights into contemporary and historical drivers of host population connectivity.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Kozakiewicz, CP and Burridge, CP and Funk, WC and Craft, ME and Crooks, KR and Fisher, RN and Fountain-Jones, NM and Jennings, MK and Kraberger, SJ and Lee, JS and Lyren, LM and Riley, SPD and Serieys, LEK and VandeWoude, S and Carver, S
Keywords: virus
Journal or Publication Title: Evolutionary Applications
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 1752-4563
DOI / ID Number: 10.1111/eva.12927
Copyright Information:

© 2020 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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