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Molecular basis of pathogenesis of coronaviruses: A comparative genomics approach to planetary health to prevent zoonotic outbreaks in the 21st century

Asrani, P, Hasan, GM, Sohal, SS ORCID: 0000-0001-9627-6498 and Hassan, MI 2020 , 'Molecular basis of pathogenesis of coronaviruses: A comparative genomics approach to planetary health to prevent zoonotic outbreaks in the 21st century' , OMICS , pp. 1-11 , doi: 10.1089/omi.2020.0131.

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Abstract

In the first quarter of the 21st century, we are already facing the third emergence of a coronavirus outbreak, thesevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic. Comparative genomics can inform a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis ofCOVID-19. Previous strains of coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus(MERS-CoV), have been known to cause acute lung injuries in humans. SARS-CoV-2 shares genetic similaritywith SARS-CoV with some modification in the S protein leading to their enhanced binding affinity toward theangiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors of human lung cells. This expert review examines thefeatures of all three coronaviruses through a conceptual lens of comparative genomics. In particular, the lifecycle of SARS-CoV-2 that enables its survival within the host is highlighted. Susceptibility of humans tocoronavirus outbreaks in the 21st century calls for comparisons of the transmission history, hosts, reservoirs,and fatality rates of these viruses so that evidence-based and effective planetary health interventions can bedevised to prevent future zoonotic outbreaks. Comparative genomics offers new insights on putative and novelviral targets with an eye to both therapeutic innovation and prevention. We conclude the expert review by (1)articulating the lessons learned so far, whereas the research is still being actively sought after in the field, and(2) the challenges and prospects in deciphering the linkages among multiomics biological variability andCOVID-19 pathogenesis.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Asrani, P and Hasan, GM and Sohal, SS and Hassan, MI
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, COPD, ACE2, comparative genomics, planetary health
Journal or Publication Title: OMICS
Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
ISSN: 1536-2310
DOI / ID Number: 10.1089/omi.2020.0131
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2020 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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