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The impracticalities of multiplicativelyclosed codon models: a retreat to linear alternatives

Shore, JA, Sumner, JG ORCID: 0000-0001-9820-0235 and Holland, BR ORCID: 0000-0002-4628-7938 2020 , 'The impracticalities of multiplicativelyclosed codon models: a retreat to linear alternatives' , Journal of Mathematical Biology , pp. 1-25 , doi: 10.1007/s00285-020-01519-5.

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A matrix Lie algebra is a linear space of matrices closed under the operation [A, B] = AB − BA. The “Lie closure” of a set of matrices is the smallest matrix Lie algebra which contains the set. In the context of Markov chain theory, if a set of rate matrices form a Lie algebra, their corresponding Markov matrices are closed under matrix multiplication; this has been found to be a useful property in phylogenetics. Inspired by previous research involving Lie closures of DNA models, it was hypothesised that finding the Lie closure of a codon model could help to solve the problem of mis-estimation of the non-synonymous/synonymous rate ratio, ω. We propose two different methods of finding a linear space from a model: the first is the linear closure which is the smallest linear space which contains the model, and the second is the linear version which changes multiplicative constraints in the model to additive ones. For each of these linear spaces we then find the Lie closures of them. Under both methods, it was found that closed codon models would require thousands of parameters, and that any partial solution to this problem that was of a reasonable size violated stochasticity. Investigation of toy models indicated that finding the Lie closure of matrix linear spaces which deviated only slightly from a simple model resulted in a Lie closure that was close to having the maximum number of parameters possible. Given that Lie closures are not practical, we propose further consideration of the two variants of linearly closed models.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Shore, JA and Sumner, JG and Holland, BR
Keywords: Lie algebra, Markov chain, synonymous/non-synonymous rate ratio
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISSN: 0303-6812
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s00285-020-01519-5
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Copyright 2020 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

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