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Numerical assessment of passive fire protection in an oil and gas storage facility

Garaniya, V ORCID: 0000-0002-0090-147X, Lim, JW, Baalisampang, T ORCID: 0000-0002-6429-7814 and Abbassi, R 2020 , 'Numerical assessment of passive fire protection in an oil and gas storage facility', in FI Khan and SM Tauseef and NA Siddiqui and BP Yadav (eds.), Advances in Industrial Safety: Select Proceedings of HSFEA 2018 , Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., Singapore, pp. 1-21.

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Oil storage and processing facilities, such as refineries, are constantly handling largequantities of hydrocarbons and chemicals in both liquid and gas forms that are inherently flammable. If accidents or errors such as human mistakes, equipment failureor deficiency in management plan were to occur, there is a high risk that propertyloss, economic disruption and production interruption will occur (Baalisampanget al. 2018a). To tackle such issues, there are a variety of guidelines and standardsfor refinery construction, building material selection and layout design to preventaccidents from occurring and to reduce the impact of structural, economical andproduction accidents. However, although guidelines and standards are constantlybeing updated and implemented, it is observed that chance of fires, detonations andexplosions occurring cannot be eliminated in the hydrocarbon processing industryas too much flammable hydrocarbon is being handled (Vervalin 1985), and there arecountless modes of failure in this industry (Baalisampang et al. 2018b). Accordingto Chang and Lin (2006), of the type of complex in which fire and explosion haveoccurred over the past 50 years, 116 of 242 accidents occurred in refineries whichcontribute to approximately 50% of the accidents. Among the 116 accidents inrefineries, 60% of them are related to fire. In addition, Hu et al. (2013) concludedthat 27% of major accidents over the past 30 years occurred in petroleum refineriesand fire or explosion accounted for 96% of the total number of cases. Based on theseresearches, it is observed that fire protection systems that are commonly installed inhydrocarbon storage facilities must be considered and selected carefully. This has not been extensively studied previously. Fire protection system (FPS) is designed torespond to fire if fire or smoke is detected, and it can be categorised into an active,passive, and inherent fire protection system (Baalisampang et al. 2016). Active fireprotection (AFP) is a system or component that requires human action or some mechanisms to activate and is employed to suppress and mitigate the fire. On the otherhand, passive fire protection (PFP) system is a defensive mechanism that requires noactivation method to prevent the spread of fire and disintegration of structure (Roe2000). Some examples of PFP are fire rated walls and doors, fire protection sprayand self-expanding foam which are designed to limit the temperature rise and excessive heat absorption of equipment and structures. Another type of PFP system isintended to prevent the spread of hydrocarbon particularly liquid hydrocarbon whichincludes drainage sumps and bunds (Spitzenberger et al. 2016). With such a widevariety of fire protection systems, the choice of an FPS is mainly dependent on thetargeted fire type, i.e. pool fire, jet fire or flash fire. A selection of an FPS must beconsidered carefully to maximise the effectiveness of the PFP applied. In addition,immoderate or excessive use of PFP can lead to problems such as increase in fabrication and building cost, risk of schedule delay (Friebe et al. 2014) and increaseddifficulty in performing corrosion testing (Tugnoli et al. 2012). Thus, selection ofthe PFP system and careful consideration of the combination of passive and activefire protection systems are of great importance.

Item Type: Book Section
Authors/Creators:Garaniya, V and Lim, JW and Baalisampang, T and Abbassi, R
Keywords: oil and gas production, passive fire protection, risk and safety
Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/978-981-15-6852-7
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Copyright 2020 Springer Nature Singapore Pty Ltd.

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