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Measurements of cloud radiative effect across the Southern Ocean (43° S–79° S, 63° E–158° W)


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Wang, H, Klekociuk, AR, French, WJR, Alexander, SP and Warner, TA 2020 , 'Measurements of cloud radiative effect across the Southern Ocean (43° S–79° S, 63° E–158° W)' , Atmosphere, vol. 11, no. 9 , pp. 1-22 , doi: 10.3390/atmos11090949.

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The surface radiation environment over the Southern Ocean within the region bound by 42.8° S to 78.7° S and 62.6° E to 157.7° W is summarised for three austral summers. This is done using ship-based measurements with the combination of downwelling radiation sensors and a cloud imager. We focus on characterising the cloud radiative effect (CRE) under a variety of conditions, comparing observations in the open ocean with those in the sea ice zone. For comparison with our observed data, we obtained surface data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts fifth reanalysis (ERA5). We found that the daily average cloud fraction was slightly lower in ERA5 compared with the observations (0.71 and 0.75, respectively). ERA5 also showed positive biases in the shortwave radiation effect and a negative bias in the longwave radiation effect. The observed mean surface CRE of −164 ± 100 Wm−2 was more negative than the mean surface CRE for ERA5 of −101 W m−2.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Wang, H and Klekociuk, AR and French, WJR and Alexander, SP and Warner, TA
Keywords: clouds, cloud radiative effect, Southern Ocean, Ross Sea, shortwave radiation, longwave radiation
Journal or Publication Title: Atmosphere
Publisher: MDPIAG
ISSN: 2073-4433
DOI / ID Number: 10.3390/atmos11090949
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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